Anuradhapura Municipal Council

අනුරාධපුර (anurādhapura)
அனுராதபுரம் (Aṉurātapuram)
Anuradhapura is the provincial capital city of North Central Province and a world heritage site in Sri Lanka. It is an important tourist destination famous for the ruins of the ancient capital city of Rajarata Kingdom. The city is a major node along the transport corridor which link Colombo to the cities in the North and East of Sri Lanka.

POPULATION IN 2012 CENSUS

50,595

SoSLC ESTIMATE IN 2017

66,000

POPULATION DENSITY ESTIMATE IN 2017 (Est. population/Built up area)

25 persons / ha

MC ADMINISTRATIVE AREA

5,140.3ha

FRINGE AREA-2017

76 ha

Demography

  • Population
    66,000
  • urban extent
    5,140.3 ha
  • density
    25 Person/ha

The section which is about "People & Functions" provides a description of the demographic status and trends in Sri Lankan cities, based on 2012 census data. 

This section presents some of the demographic patterns and trends in Sri Lankan cities within its current boundaries, which provides information for better planning of our cities. If these demographic pointers are taken into account, cities can be more livable and better service the citizenry of Sri Lanka.

The demographic attributes and functions of Sri Lanka's cities have implications for policy makers and planners achieving a better urban future for all Sri Lankans from the following aspects:

Competitive

  • Sri Lanka’s cities benefit from a demographic dividend that can drive the urban economy;
  • Cities provide key functions that drive Sri Lanka’s economy, including commercial, industrial and transport infrastructure, and supporting social services;

Inclusive

  • Cities could be the gateways to the economy and social integration of the varied ethnic and religious groups in the country. This rich heritage can be capitalized on to promote tourism while also building up national integration and social cohesion.
  • Inclusive urban planning and universal design will allow the aging population be mobile and access public services.
  • Residents in remote urban centres lack the social and economic opportunities afforded to residents of the capital, Colombo;

Resilient

  • Cities provide a range of important sevices that are important for the population to respond to shocks and stresses.

Safe

  • Cities can provide a safe environment for female headed households, which can be enhanced through better lighting and policing of streets, and easy access to affordable housing and governance systems.

Sustainable

  • Sustainable urban development requires an appropriately skilled and educated workforce that can plan for the future while respond to current challenges
  • Providing equitable access to economic and social services across Sri Lanka’s cities will redistribute economic opportunities across, leading to diversified, balanced and, hence, sustainable economic development. 
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Reason for migration
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
More males are considering employment as a reason to migrate, where more females are considering marriage and accompanying with a family member in migration according to the data 2012.
Language competency
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Graph shows language abilities of the people in Anuradhapura municipal council in 2012
Sex Ratio (Female per every 100 Males) by age group
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Sex ratio is calculated using the percentage of proportion of males relative to females in a population. The graph indicates that more females than males in all age groups except 30-59.
Female Headed households and Male Headed Households with National Average
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph shows that household headed by gender with respective average. percentage of female households are lower than male headed households in the city.
Migrant population by gender
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Almost same number of male and female migrated into city
Ethnic profile
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Anuradhapura’s ethnic city makeup comprises a majority of 91 per cent Sinhalese, followed by 7.0 per cent Sri Lanka Moor, 1.2 per cent Tamil, and 0.3 per cent Other groups. The graph shows around 91 per cent of Sinhalese in all three region.
Gender distribution by age
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Aging population in the city area is in a low rate. City holds high number of people in the labor force which is a plus factor to the economic growth in the city.

Education

Education has always been a significant element in societal development. The development of education facilities contributes substantially to the development in an urban area.

As a developing country it is crucial to address poverty in order to attain the development goals. Education plays a major role in poverty reduction. Presently, several global cities have been implementing the concept of smart city to improve the quality of life of the society, including in the field of education.

Good educational institutions and coverage enables a population to have decent livelihoods be they self employed or part of the workforce. Understanding how a city provides primary, secondary and tertiary eductional as well as skill development through vocational centres could provide some pointers to how well a city is doing or where it needs to develop further.

Category of Educational attainment by Gender( aged 3 - 24 years )
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Almost 25% of people in the aged group 3-24 not attending to any type of education in Anuradhapura MC
Highest Level of Education achieved by Gender
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Level of education in the city is in a satisfactory level, where, majority of the female students are achieving GCE AL. Considering the level of achieving degree or above education qualification, more number of males are recorded.
Computer literacy - ( Population aged 10 years and above )
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Age in between year 15 to 19 records the highest level of computer literacy in the area.

Transport

Connectivity is central to key GoSL strategic aims: to promote economic growth, and to rebalance growth across the country’s 9 provinces. Higher the connectivity to any city, better is the urban growth in that city. 

Detailed information on key transport aspects including bus and rail transport, freight route maps, airports and logistic systems are aspects that should be considered for a city to be properly interconnected within the bigger system. One of the SDG targets 11.2 is about access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems, road safety, public transport, and if we are to move towards being sustainble, these need to be considered in tranpsort planning. Further, the needs of people in vulnerable situations, women and children, persons with disabilities and older persons should also be considered.

ICT coverage is another way of being connected and recent technological advances enable a city to be better connected through its access to ICTs as well.

Accident statistics in Police Divisions (Number of fatal casualties)
Source - Sri Lanka Police Department
Fatal casualties record a drastic increase in 2015 and substantial reduction in 2016 in Anuradhapura MC.
Number of Vehicles and Passengers by Mode - One Way, 24 Hours
Source - SOSLC Project
The route buses are the dominant type of vehicle in the area which tolerate the majority of the passengers. Motor cycles are also used in a considerable level.
Number of railway passengers annually
Source - Sri Lanka Railways
The date records a increase in annual railway passengers from 2014 to 2016
Hourly traffic flow (in day time )
Source - SOSLC Project
Between 7 am to 8 am is the busiest traffic period in the Anuradhapura MC area with peak reached at 8 am due to school and work commuting traffic.
Modal share of vehicles entering in Municipal Council from 06 am to 06 pm (Percent)
Source - SOSLC Project
This highest percentage of vehicles entering into the Anuradhapura MC area between 6 am to 6pm were private vehicles such as motorcycles and car/van/jeeps totaling around 85 per cent of the modal share. Route buss only represent 2% out of the total share of vehicles
Railway passengers coming into/from city center
Source - Sri Lanka Railways
Number of passengers from Colombo area and Northern line are the majority.

Economy

Cities are the primary drivers of economic development, therefore, Sri Lanka’s cities have a decisive role to play in driving the economy forward by catalysing high value-added economic activities, as the country strives to achieve upper middle-income country status.

According the latest Word Cities report, 80 per cent of global GDP is created by cities, despite their accounting for less than 60 per cent of the world’s population (UN-Habitat, 2016).

The Government of Sri Lanka recognizes the role of urban economy in shaping the future of the country. In this respect, Vision 2025 and Public Investment Programme (PIP) 2017-2020 lays out the urban policy priority actions: to promote western region as economic hub of the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, and to promote strategic city development to secondary urban spaces as provincial economic hubs. 

It is also interesting to see how competitive a city is, taking into account current and potential roles of governments, businesses and the private sector in the economic development of the city and urban settlements, best use of human capital,  and labour force participation, and existing skills and the job market etc. within demarcated territory. 

Estimated City Competitiveness Index (CCI)
Source - SOSLC Project
Anuradhapura is ranked as the 5th best city according to the City Competitiveness Index (CCI). Anuradhapura is slightly lower by each categories compared to the average values across the nine provincial capital cities.
Estimated Gross domestic product per capita
Source - Central Bank Annual report 2017
The graph provide the evidence to a gradual rise in Estimated GDP per capita in Anuradhapura MC.

Urban governance

Urban governance can be simplified as “how government (local, regional and national) and stakeholders decide on planning, financing and managing urban areas”. It involves a continuous process of negotiation and contestation over allocation of social and material resources and political power.

This section provide a snapshot of the emergent contours of urban governance in Sri Lanka, focusing on financial resilience, service provision and economic dynamism.

Information available here are collected and calculated considering secondary data sets, ground level surveys as well as stakeholder discussions. The city governance index has taken many a factor into consideration and provides a valuable way of assessing our cities and how they rank from a governance perspective.

City Governance Index
Source - SOSLC Project
Anuradhapura is ranked as the 5th best city in City Governance Index (CGI).The CGI index of the city is 40.96 out of 100
Distribution of Local Authorities (by Province)
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
In Sri Lanka the LAs are divided into three types according to its population and size: Municipal Councils (MC, 23) which corresponds to the city, Urban Councils (UC, 41) which corresponds to the town, and Pradeshiya Sabha (PS, 271) which corresponds to the village. They are responsible for providing a variety of local public services including roads, sanitation, drains, waste collection, housing, libraries, public parks and recreational facilities. This pie chart shows the distribution of LAs by province in particular local authority belongs. North Central province include 2 MC’s , 1 UC and 25 PS’s. Anuradhapura is the provincial capital city of North Central province.

Housing

An important function of Sri Lanka’s cities is to provide housing for the diversity of residents that support urban life. Sri Lankan early urban settlement legacy – histories, patterns, trends including land use and housing and the development challenges that come along with it have shaped the nature of our cities.

The share of housing as a proportion of built-up area across the different cities was considered, and numerous factors affect the figure. e.g. Anuradhapura, has restrictions on residential developments because of its cultural, historical and touristic importance, other MCs include significant social and economic land use, operating as a hub to surrounding suburbs and rural areas with large residential populations.

Housing policy challenges that are encountered by the city administrators relate to tenure systems, the supply of affordable, high quality housing, and difficulties accessing housing finance. 

Types of housing unit
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph indicates the typology of housing in the Anuradhapura MC Area. The majority of housing (around 96 per cent) comprises single story and two story houses.
Types of housing
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph indicate that in Anuradhapura municipal council almost 90.5 per cent of the houses were permanent in 2012

Municipal Services

Municipal services is one of the key tasks an urban centre carries out fto ensure a functional living condition for its citizens.

The access to municipal services and the quality of their provision strongly influence the social, economic and environmental performance of a city as well as urban development.

Urban centres provide key services that underpin Sri Lanka’s socioeconomic development. Cities provide key government administration functions, such as vehicle registration services, access to social protection schemes, and a range of additional services (explored in detail in Chapter 9, urban governance in the SoSLC Report). Urban centres provide residents with health and education services: providing equitable access to quality healthcare and education. They also include services to facilitate social recreational activities and promote community cohesion, such as libraries, community centres and sports facilities. Ensuring quality services is a crucial component in securing an urban future for all Sri Lankans. 

Solid waste collection and disposal (Per day)
Source - JICA
Almost 53 per cent households were not covered for garbage collection, consequences of this, households burning, burying or open dumping their garbage.
Infrastructure
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Anuradhapura MC Area has extremely high coverage of electricity and water services with 97 per cent and 99 per cent having access to safe drinking water and electricity respectively.

Environment

A city needs to have an environment that is habitable and conducive with appropriate spaces for people who use the city, while also being resilient in the face of increasing climate risk.

Aspects such as a cities’ air and water quality, quality of the built environment as well as the aesthetic and historic aspects in the city are things we need to look at. However, in the light of increasing disaster risk, managing climate change impact in the light of current urbanisation patterns becomes a key concern, and thus land use planning in a city needs to take this into account.

SDG targets 11.4 (safeguarding cultural and natural heritage) and 11.5 (reducing impacts of disasters, especially floods), 11.6 (air quality and waste) and  11.7 (safe, open and green spaces for all groups) all emphasize that for a city to be sustainable, these aspects need to be considered.

rainfall 2
Climate risk exposure (1974-2017)
Source - Disaster Management Center
The graph shows that the area get affected dominantly due to drought situations from 1974 to 2017 in Anuradhapura MC
Rainfall
Air pollution due to transport
Source - National Building Research Organisation
The data elaborates the level of pollutants in the air due to transportation in the city. Recommended sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) levels are according to the WHO recommendations.

Thematic maps

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Legend
SOSLC project

Detailed layer on the available land uses in the MC area is visualized in this map space.

Built-Up
SOSLC project
  • Total Built-Up
    2647.88
  • Residential
    • Low Rise
      • 1420.33
    • Slum
      • 5.64
  • Commercial
    • Retail
      • 160.35
    • Mixed Retail-Residential
      • 13.96
    • Banks
      • 3.26
  • Institutional
    • Education
      • University
        39.60
      • Other higher edu.
        10.85
      • School
        38.16
    • Health
      • Hospital
        14.34
      • Dispensary
        1.02
    • Government
      • 187.25
  • Industrial
    • Factory
      • 26.06
  • Transport
    • Bus Terminus
      • 2.47
    • Rail Terminus
      • 4.00
    • Airport
      • 59.08
    • Parking
      • 4.15
    • Roads
      • 20.53
    • Rail Road
      • 98.37
  • Public Space
    • Park/Square
      • 45.14
    • Playground
      • 39.43
    • Cemetery
      • 19.23
  • Cultural
    • Religious
      • Temple/Shrine
        99.58
      • Church
        1.52
      • Mosque
        1.04
    • Archeologic
      • 332.34
  • Under Construction
      • 0.18
Non Built-up
SOSLC project
  • Total Non Built-up
    2492.47
  • Agriculture
      • 710.32
  • Water
      • 1545.98
  • Forest
      • 36.76
  • Reservation
      • 133.70
  • Wetland
      • 12.54
  • Shrub
      • 10.28
  • Barren Land
      • 42.89
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Legend
SOSLC project

Detailed data layer on urban expansion in the MC area as well as in fringe area is visualized in this map space.

Urban Extent
SOSLC project
Anuradhapura Municipal Council
  • Urban change 1995 - 2019
    7.37
  • Overall Growth rate 1995 - 2019
    0 %
  • TOTAL AOI
    0 KM2
  • Municipality
      • urban Expansion 1995 - 2019
        4.68 KM2
          • 1995
            Total Municipality
            51.4 KM2
            • Urban
              1.96 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              7.39 KM2
            • Non-Built
              26.71 KM2
            • Water
              15.34 KM2
          • 2001
            Total Municipality
            51.41 KM2
            • Urban
              2.44 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              10.44 KM2
            • Non-Built
              23.19 KM2
            • Water
              15.34 KM2
          • 2012
            Total Municipality
            51.42 KM2
            • Urban
              4.96 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              15.3 KM2
            • Non-Built
              15.82 KM2
            • Water
              15.34 KM2
          • 2017
            Total Municipality
            51.41 KM2
            • Urban
              8.59 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              17.64 KM2
            • Non-Built
              9.84 KM2
            • Water
              15.34 KM2
          • 2019
            Total Municipality
            0 KM2
            • Urban
              0 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              0 KM2
            • Non-Built
              0 KM2
            • Water
              0 KM2
  • Fringe
      • urban Expansion 1995 - 2019
        2.69 KM2
          • 1995
            Total Fringe
            632.82 KM2
            • Urban
              0 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              4.31 KM2
            • Non-Built
              560.23 KM2
            • Water
              68.28 KM2
          • 2001
            Total Fringe
            632.82 KM2
            • Urban
              0.53 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              9.92 KM2
            • Non-Built
              554.09 KM2
            • Water
              68.28 KM2
          • 2012
            Total Fringe
            632.82 KM2
            • Urban
              0.64 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              27.34 KM2
            • Non-Built
              536.56 KM2
            • Water
              68.28 KM2
          • 2017
            Total Fringe
            632.82 KM2
            • Urban
              0.76 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              45.26 KM2
            • Non-Built
              518.52 KM2
            • Water
              68.28 KM2
          • 2019
            Total Fringe
            0 KM2
            • Urban
              0 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              0 KM2
            • Non-Built
              0 KM2
            • Water
              0 KM2
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