Badulla Municipal Council

බදුල්ල (badulla)
பதுளை (Patuḷai)
Badulla is the provincial capital city of Uva Province. It is located among the central hills and is highly exposed to landslides. The working age population is one of the lowest among the nine provincial capitals. The area has significant tourism assets that can be further developed to help drive future economic growth.

POPULATION IN 2012 CENSUS

42,237

SoSLC ESTIMATE IN 2017

54,000

POPULATION DENSITY ESTIMATE IN 2017 (Est. population/Built up area)

746 persons / ha

MC ADMINISTRATIVE AREA

1,065.6ha

FRINGE URBAN AREA

8,546 ha

Demography

  • Population
    54,000
  • urban extent
    1,065.6 ha
  • density
    746 Person/ha

The section which is about "People & Functions" provides a description of the demographic status and trends in Sri Lankan cities, based on 2012 census data. 

This section presents some of the demographic patterns and trends in Sri Lankan cities within its current boundaries, which provides information for better planning of our cities. If these demographic pointers are taken into account, cities can be more livable and better service the citizenry of Sri Lanka.

The demographic attributes and functions of Sri Lanka's cities have implications for policy makers and planners achieving a better urban future for all Sri Lankans from the following aspects:

Competitive

  • Sri Lanka’s cities benefit from a demographic dividend that can drive the urban economy;
  • Cities provide key functions that drive Sri Lanka’s economy, including commercial, industrial and transport infrastructure, and supporting social services;

Inclusive

  • Cities could be the gateways to the economy and social integration of the varied ethnic and religious groups in the country. This rich heritage can be capitalized on to promote tourism while also building up national integration and social cohesion.
  • Inclusive urban planning and universal design will allow the aging population be mobile and access public services.
  • Residents in remote urban centres lack the social and economic opportunities afforded to residents of the capital, Colombo;

Resilient

  • Cities provide a range of important sevices that are important for the population to respond to shocks and stresses.

Safe

  • Cities can provide a safe environment for female headed households, which can be enhanced through better lighting and policing of streets, and easy access to affordable housing and governance systems.

Sustainable

  • Sustainable urban development requires an appropriately skilled and educated workforce that can plan for the future while respond to current challenges
  • Providing equitable access to economic and social services across Sri Lanka’s cities will redistribute economic opportunities across, leading to diversified, balanced and, hence, sustainable economic development. 
Sex Ratio (Female per every 100 Males) by age group
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The above figure shows the ratio of women to 100 men. The highest percentage (127%) is over 60 years old and the lowest percentage (94.5%) is between 15-29 years old.
Female Headed households and Male Headed Households with National Average
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
75 per cent Male headed household in Badulla MC in 2012
Migrant population by gender
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
This indicates that more females migrated into city than males in 2012.
Language competency
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
This indicates that ethnic groups and their language abilities in 2012.
Ethnic profile
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Badulla’s ethnic city makeup comprises a majority of 73.4 per cent Sinhalese, followed by 14.4 per cent Sri Lanka Moor, 6.8 per cent Tamil, and 5.1 per cent Other groups.
Reason for migration
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Majority of the female migrants are due to marriage and more male migrants are giving their reason for migration as employment.
Gender distribution by age
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The number of people in labor force in the area is in a high level. this situation is a plus factor for the development of the area.

Education

Education has always been a significant element in societal development. The development of education facilities contributes substantially to the development in an urban area.

As a developing country it is crucial to address poverty in order to attain the development goals. Education plays a major role in poverty reduction. Presently, several global cities have been implementing the concept of smart city to improve the quality of life of the society, including in the field of education.

Good educational institutions and coverage enables a population to have decent livelihoods be they self employed or part of the workforce. Understanding how a city provides primary, secondary and tertiary eductional as well as skill development through vocational centres could provide some pointers to how well a city is doing or where it needs to develop further.

Category of Educational attainment by Gender( aged 3 - 24 years )
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph shows that very few people entering higher studies even though basic school education of the Badulla MC has a good number of students.
Highest Level of Education achieved by Gender
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
This graph shows that there is still a higher proportion of males that achieve a higher degree and above despite more females graduating from GCE (O/L) and GCE (A/L).
Computer literacy - ( Population aged 10 years and above )
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
This graph provides the detail of computer literacy according to the age category.

Transport

Connectivity is central to key GoSL strategic aims: to promote economic growth, and to rebalance growth across the country’s 9 provinces. Higher the connectivity to any city, better is the urban growth in that city. 

Detailed information on key transport aspects including bus and rail transport, freight route maps, airports and logistic systems are aspects that should be considered for a city to be properly interconnected within the bigger system. One of the SDG targets 11.2 is about access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems, road safety, public transport, and if we are to move towards being sustainble, these need to be considered in tranpsort planning. Further, the needs of people in vulnerable situations, women and children, persons with disabilities and older persons should also be considered.

ICT coverage is another way of being connected and recent technological advances enable a city to be better connected through its access to ICTs as well.

Accident statistics in Police Divisions (Number of fatal casualties)
Source - Sri Lanka Police Department
This graph shows fatal casualties within the last 3 years in Badulla MC Area.
Modal share of vehicles entering in Municipal Council from 06 am to 06 pm (Percent)
Source - SOSLC Project
Use of privately owned vehicles like, motorcycles, car, van... are in a considerably high level in the city. number of buses which more passengers can be served are used in a minimum level.
Hourly traffic flow (in day time )
Source - SOSLC Project
Between 7 am to 9 am is the busiest traffic period in the Badulla MC area with peak reached at 8am due to school and work commuting traffic.
Number of Vehicles and Passengers by Mode - One Way, 24 Hours
Source - SOSLC Project
Used limit number of buses are holding the largest number of passengers in the city transport. there are considerably high number of private owned vehicles in the transport system which can be a reason to vehicular traffic in the system.
Number of railway passengers annually
Source - Sri Lanka Railways
The date records a increase in annual railway passengers from 2014 to 2016
Railway passengers coming into/from city center
Source - Sri Lanka Railways
majority of the rail passengers are using the main line to come in to the city and to leave from the city.
Pedestrian crossing

Economy

Cities are the primary drivers of economic development, therefore, Sri Lanka’s cities have a decisive role to play in driving the economy forward by catalysing high value-added economic activities, as the country strives to achieve upper middle-income country status.

According the latest Word Cities report, 80 per cent of global GDP is created by cities, despite their accounting for less than 60 per cent of the world’s population (UN-Habitat, 2016).

The Government of Sri Lanka recognizes the role of urban economy in shaping the future of the country. In this respect, Vision 2025 and Public Investment Programme (PIP) 2017-2020 lays out the urban policy priority actions: to promote western region as economic hub of the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, and to promote strategic city development to secondary urban spaces as provincial economic hubs. 

It is also interesting to see how competitive a city is, taking into account current and potential roles of governments, businesses and the private sector in the economic development of the city and urban settlements, best use of human capital,  and labour force participation, and existing skills and the job market etc. within demarcated territory. 

Estimated City Competitiveness Index (CCI)
Source - SOSLC Project
Badulla is ranked as the least on the city competitiveness indes (CCI). The graph indicates the CCI of Badulla by categories is lower than compared to the average across the nine provincial capital cities.
Estimated Gross domestic product per capita
Source - Central Bank Annual report 2017
This graph indicates the gradual rise in estimated per capita GDP in Badulla MC.

Urban governance

Urban governance can be simplified as “how government (local, regional and national) and stakeholders decide on planning, financing and managing urban areas”. It involves a continuous process of negotiation and contestation over allocation of social and material resources and political power.

This section provide a snapshot of the emergent contours of urban governance in Sri Lanka, focusing on financial resilience, service provision and economic dynamism.

Information available here are collected and calculated considering secondary data sets, ground level surveys as well as stakeholder discussions. The city governance index has taken many a factor into consideration and provides a valuable way of assessing our cities and how they rank from a governance perspective.

City Governance Index
Source - SOSLC Project
Badulla MC is ranked as 6th in the City Governance Index and scored a high of 74.72 in the ‘Service Delivery Coverage’ and low of 20.83 in ‘Accountability and Equity’.
Distribution of Local Authorities (by Province)
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
In Sri Lanka the LAs are divided into three types according to its population and size: Municipal Councils (MC, 23) which corresponds to the city, Urban Councils (UC, 41) which corresponds to the town, and Pradeshiya Sabha (PS, 271) which corresponds to the village. They are responsible for providing a variety of local public services including roads, sanitation, drains, waste collection, housing, libraries, public parks and recreational facilities. This pie chart shows the distribution of LAs by province in particular local authority belongs. Uwa province consist with 2 MC’s , 1 UC and 25 PS’s. Badulla is the provincial capital city of Uwa province.

Housing

An important function of Sri Lanka’s cities is to provide housing for the diversity of residents that support urban life. Sri Lankan early urban settlement legacy – histories, patterns, trends including land use and housing and the development challenges that come along with it have shaped the nature of our cities.

The share of housing as a proportion of built-up area across the different cities was considered, and numerous factors affect the figure. e.g. Anuradhapura, has restrictions on residential developments because of its cultural, historical and touristic importance, other MCs include significant social and economic land use, operating as a hub to surrounding suburbs and rural areas with large residential populations.

Housing policy challenges that are encountered by the city administrators relate to tenure systems, the supply of affordable, high quality housing, and difficulties accessing housing finance. 

Types of housing unit
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph indicates the typology of housing in the Badulla MC Area. The majority of housing (around 90 percent) comprises single story and two story houses.
Types of housing
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph indicate that in Badulla Municipal council almost 89 per cent of the houses were permanent in 2012

Municipal Services

Municipal services is one of the key tasks an urban centre carries out fto ensure a functional living condition for its citizens.

The access to municipal services and the quality of their provision strongly influence the social, economic and environmental performance of a city as well as urban development.

Urban centres provide key services that underpin Sri Lanka’s socioeconomic development. Cities provide key government administration functions, such as vehicle registration services, access to social protection schemes, and a range of additional services (explored in detail in Chapter 9, urban governance in the SoSLC Report). Urban centres provide residents with health and education services: providing equitable access to quality healthcare and education. They also include services to facilitate social recreational activities and promote community cohesion, such as libraries, community centres and sports facilities. Ensuring quality services is a crucial component in securing an urban future for all Sri Lankans. 

Infrastructure
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Badulla MC Area has extremely high coverage of electricity and water services with 98 per cent and 95 percent having access to safe drinking water and electricity respectively.
Solid waste collection and disposal (Per day)
Source - JICA
70 percent households are covered for garbage collection in the MC ares. Majority of the remaining 30 percent households are burning the solid waste as a disposal method.

Environment

A city needs to have an environment that is habitable and conducive with appropriate spaces for people who use the city, while also being resilient in the face of increasing climate risk.

Aspects such as a cities’ air and water quality, quality of the built environment as well as the aesthetic and historic aspects in the city are things we need to look at. However, in the light of increasing disaster risk, managing climate change impact in the light of current urbanisation patterns becomes a key concern, and thus land use planning in a city needs to take this into account.

SDG targets 11.4 (safeguarding cultural and natural heritage) and 11.5 (reducing impacts of disasters, especially floods), 11.6 (air quality and waste) and  11.7 (safe, open and green spaces for all groups) all emphasize that for a city to be sustainable, these aspects need to be considered.

Climate risk exposure (1974-2017)
Source - Disaster Management Center
This graph indicates that climate exposure from 1974 to 2017. Due to land slides and floods most of the people were effected.

Thematic maps

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Legend

Detailed layer on the available land uses in the MC area is visualized in this map space.

Built-Up
  • Total Built-Up
    731.86
  • Residential
    • High Rise
      • 0.21
    • Low Rise
      • 563.19
  • Commercial
    • Retail
      • 43.20
    • Office
      • 1.27
    • Mixed Retail-Residential
      • 0.82
    • Banks
      • 0.93
  • Institutional
    • Education
      • University
        2.75
      • Other higher edu.
        2.80
      • School
        10.62
    • Health
      • Hospital
        6.27
      • Dispensary
        0.17
    • Government
      • 15.73
  • Industrial
    • Factory
      • 2.52
  • Transport
    • Bus Terminus
      • 2.28
    • Rail Terminus
      • 1.23
    • Parking
      • 0.21
    • Roads
      • 48.14
  • Public Space
    • Park/Square
      • 6.36
    • Playground
      • 11.07
    • Cemetery
      • 2.43
  • Cultural
    • Religious
      • Temple/Shrine
        7.41
      • Church
        1.58
      • Mosque
        0.46
    • Archeologic
      • 0.21
Non Built-up
  • Total Non Built-up
    333.71
  • Agriculture
      • 93.60
  • Water
      • 24.89
  • Forest
      • 41.92
  • Shrub
      • 154.09
  • Barren Land
      • 19.21
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Legend

Detailed data layer on urban expansion in the MC area as well as in fringe area is visualized in this map space.

Urban Extent
Badulla Municipal Council
  • Urban change 1995 - 2019
    11.11
  • Overall Growth rate 1995 - 2019
    0 %
  • TOTAL AOI
    0 KM2
  • Municipality
      • urban Expansion 1995 - 2019
        3.1 KM2
          • 1995
            Total Municipality
            10.67 KM2
            • Urban
              0.83 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              2.27 KM2
            • Non-Built
              7.23 KM2
            • Water
              0.34 KM2
          • 2001
            Total Municipality
            10.65 KM2
            • Urban
              1.49 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              2.34 KM2
            • Non-Built
              6.48 KM2
            • Water
              0.34 KM2
          • 2012
            Total Municipality
            10.66 KM2
            • Urban
              3.19 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              2.61 KM2
            • Non-Built
              4.52 KM2
            • Water
              0.34 KM2
          • 2017
            Total Municipality
            10.66 KM2
            • Urban
              4.61 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              2.85 KM2
            • Non-Built
              2.86 KM2
            • Water
              0.34 KM2
          • 2019
            Total Municipality
            0 KM2
            • Urban
              0 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              0 KM2
            • Non-Built
              0 KM2
            • Water
              0 KM2
  • Fringe
      • urban Expansion 1995 - 2019
        8.01 KM2
          • 1995
            Total Fringe
            85.46 KM2
            • Urban
              1.87 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              5.19 KM2
            • Non-Built
              77.74 KM2
            • Water
              0.66 KM2
          • 2001
            Total Fringe
            85.47 KM2
            • Urban
              2.9 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              7.12 KM2
            • Non-Built
              74.79 KM2
            • Water
              0.66 KM2
          • 2012
            Total Fringe
            85.46 KM2
            • Urban
              4.86 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              10.62 KM2
            • Non-Built
              69.32 KM2
            • Water
              0.66 KM2
          • 2017
            Total Fringe
            85.46 KM2
            • Urban
              5.98 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              12.55 KM2
            • Non-Built
              66.27 KM2
            • Water
              0.66 KM2
          • 2019
            Total Fringe
            0 KM2
            • Urban
              0 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              0 KM2
            • Non-Built
              0 KM2
            • Water
              0 KM2
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