Jaffna Municipal Council

යාපනය (yāpanaya)
யாழ்ப்பாணம் (Yāḻppāṇa)
Jaffna is the provincial capital city of Northern Province. The city is a historical port city, which was established in colonial era. Jaffna has one of the highest annual GDP growth rate and is driven by a service economy.

POPULATION IN 2012 CENSUS

80,829

SoSLC ESTIMATE IN 2017

94,000

POPULATION DENSITY ESTIMATE IN 2017 (Est. population/Built up area)

52 persons / ha

MC ADMINISTRATIVE AREA

1,910.6ha

FRINGE URBAN AREA-2017

98 ha

Demography

  • Population
    94,000
  • urban extent
    1,910.6 ha
  • density
    52 Person/ha

The section which is about "People & Functions" provides a description of the demographic status and trends in Sri Lankan cities, based on 2012 census data. 

This section presents some of the demographic patterns and trends in Sri Lankan cities within its current boundaries, which provides information for better planning of our cities. If these demographic pointers are taken into account, cities can be more livable and better service the citizenry of Sri Lanka.

The demographic attributes and functions of Sri Lanka's cities have implications for policy makers and planners achieving a better urban future for all Sri Lankans from the following aspects:

Competitive

  • Sri Lanka’s cities benefit from a demographic dividend that can drive the urban economy;
  • Cities provide key functions that drive Sri Lanka’s economy, including commercial, industrial and transport infrastructure, and supporting social services;

Inclusive

  • Cities could be the gateways to the economy and social integration of the varied ethnic and religious groups in the country. This rich heritage can be capitalized on to promote tourism while also building up national integration and social cohesion.
  • Inclusive urban planning and universal design will allow the aging population be mobile and access public services.
  • Residents in remote urban centres lack the social and economic opportunities afforded to residents of the capital, Colombo;

Resilient

  • Cities provide a range of important sevices that are important for the population to respond to shocks and stresses.

Safe

  • Cities can provide a safe environment for female headed households, which can be enhanced through better lighting and policing of streets, and easy access to affordable housing and governance systems.

Sustainable

  • Sustainable urban development requires an appropriately skilled and educated workforce that can plan for the future while respond to current challenges
  • Providing equitable access to economic and social services across Sri Lanka’s cities will redistribute economic opportunities across, leading to diversified, balanced and, hence, sustainable economic development. 
Language competency
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
This graph indicates that categories of ethnic groups and their language abilities.
Sex Ratio (Female per every 100 Males) by age group
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Sex ratio is calculated using the percentage of proportion of males relative to females in a population. The graph indicates that more females than males in all age group except less than 15.
Female Headed households and Male Headed Households with National Average
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph shows males and females headed households with respective national average
Migrant population by gender
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
More females migrated than males into the city in 2012
Ethnic profile
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Jaffna’s ethnic city makeup comprises a majority of 97 percent tamil and others groups 3 per cent.
Population Growth rate
Source - JICA
The graph elaborates the population growth in the area
Reason for migration
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Highest number of migrants are resettled after disparagement according to the data.
Gender distribution by age
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
It can be observed that the number of female population in the area is higher than the proportion of male population.

Education

Education has always been a significant element in societal development. The development of education facilities contributes substantially to the development in an urban area.

As a developing country it is crucial to address poverty in order to attain the development goals. Education plays a major role in poverty reduction. Presently, several global cities have been implementing the concept of smart city to improve the quality of life of the society, including in the field of education.

Good educational institutions and coverage enables a population to have decent livelihoods be they self employed or part of the workforce. Understanding how a city provides primary, secondary and tertiary eductional as well as skill development through vocational centres could provide some pointers to how well a city is doing or where it needs to develop further.

Category of Educational attainment by Gender( aged 3 - 24 years )
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Around 60 per cent of people in school education while 25 per cent not studying.
Highest Level of Education achieved by Gender
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
All the category, female students participated or achieved education is more than male in Jaffna MC.
Computer literacy - ( Population aged 10 years and above )
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Level of computer literacy in age from 20 to 24 is the best recorded in the city.

Transport

Connectivity is central to key GoSL strategic aims: to promote economic growth, and to rebalance growth across the country’s 9 provinces. Higher the connectivity to any city, better is the urban growth in that city. 

Detailed information on key transport aspects including bus and rail transport, freight route maps, airports and logistic systems are aspects that should be considered for a city to be properly interconnected within the bigger system. One of the SDG targets 11.2 is about access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems, road safety, public transport, and if we are to move towards being sustainble, these need to be considered in tranpsort planning. Further, the needs of people in vulnerable situations, women and children, persons with disabilities and older persons should also be considered.

ICT coverage is another way of being connected and recent technological advances enable a city to be better connected through its access to ICTs as well.

Accident statistics in Police Divisions (Number of fatal casualties)
Source - Sri Lanka Police Department
This graph shows fatal casualties within the last 3 years.
Number of railway passengers annually
Hourly traffic flow (in day time )
Source - SOSLC Project
Traffic increase from 6.00 upwards to 17.00 in the Jaffna MC area with peak reached at 13.00 due to school closing time. This features only for Jaffna MC comparing other cities.
Number of Vehicles and Passengers by Mode - One Way, 24 Hours
Railway passengers coming into/from city center
Source - Sri Lanka Railways
The data elaborates the railway passengers commuting to the city as well as out from the city.
Pedestrian crossing

Economy

Cities are the primary drivers of economic development, therefore, Sri Lanka’s cities have a decisive role to play in driving the economy forward by catalysing high value-added economic activities, as the country strives to achieve upper middle-income country status.

According the latest Word Cities report, 80 per cent of global GDP is created by cities, despite their accounting for less than 60 per cent of the world’s population (UN-Habitat, 2016).

The Government of Sri Lanka recognizes the role of urban economy in shaping the future of the country. In this respect, Vision 2025 and Public Investment Programme (PIP) 2017-2020 lays out the urban policy priority actions: to promote western region as economic hub of the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, and to promote strategic city development to secondary urban spaces as provincial economic hubs. 

It is also interesting to see how competitive a city is, taking into account current and potential roles of governments, businesses and the private sector in the economic development of the city and urban settlements, best use of human capital,  and labour force participation, and existing skills and the job market etc. within demarcated territory. 

Estimated City Competitiveness Index (CCI)
Source - SOSLC Project
Jaffna MC is ranked as the 6th highest along with Anuradhapura on the CCI.
Estimated Gross domestic product per capita
Source - Central Bank Annual report 2017
This graph indicates the gradual rise in per capita GDP in Jaffna MC.
Annual Revenue and Expenditure
Source - Jaffna Municipal Council
The data elaborates the annual revenue and expenditure of the city

Urban governance

Urban governance can be simplified as “how government (local, regional and national) and stakeholders decide on planning, financing and managing urban areas”. It involves a continuous process of negotiation and contestation over allocation of social and material resources and political power.

This section provide a snapshot of the emergent contours of urban governance in Sri Lanka, focusing on financial resilience, service provision and economic dynamism.

Information available here are collected and calculated considering secondary data sets, ground level surveys as well as stakeholder discussions. The city governance index has taken many a factor into consideration and provides a valuable way of assessing our cities and how they rank from a governance perspective.

City Governance Index
Source - SOSLC Project
Jaffna MC has scored a high of 82.59 in the ‘Service Delivery Coverage’ and low of 20.00 in ‘Accountability and Equity’
Distribution of Local Authorities (by Province)
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
In Sri Lanka the LAs are divided into three types according to its population and size: Municipal Councils (MC, 23) which corresponds to the city, Urban Councils (UC, 41) which corresponds to the town, and Pradeshiya Sabha (PS, 271) which corresponds to the village. They are responsible for providing a variety of local public services including roads, sanitation, drains, waste collection, housing, libraries, public parks and recreational facilities. This pie chart shows the distribution of LAs by province in particular local authority belongs. Northern Province include 1 MC’s, 5 UC and 28 PS’s. Jaffna is the provincial capital city of Northern province.

Housing

An important function of Sri Lanka’s cities is to provide housing for the diversity of residents that support urban life. Sri Lankan early urban settlement legacy – histories, patterns, trends including land use and housing and the development challenges that come along with it have shaped the nature of our cities.

The share of housing as a proportion of built-up area across the different cities was considered, and numerous factors affect the figure. e.g. Anuradhapura, has restrictions on residential developments because of its cultural, historical and touristic importance, other MCs include significant social and economic land use, operating as a hub to surrounding suburbs and rural areas with large residential populations.

Housing policy challenges that are encountered by the city administrators relate to tenure systems, the supply of affordable, high quality housing, and difficulties accessing housing finance. 

Types of housing unit
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph indicates the typology of housing in the Jaffna MC Area. The majority of housing (around 96 per cent) comprises single story and two story houses.
Types of housing
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph indicate that in Jaffna municipal council almost 91.6 per cent of the houses were permanent in 2012

Municipal Services

Municipal services is one of the key tasks an urban centre carries out fto ensure a functional living condition for its citizens.

The access to municipal services and the quality of their provision strongly influence the social, economic and environmental performance of a city as well as urban development.

Urban centres provide key services that underpin Sri Lanka’s socioeconomic development. Cities provide key government administration functions, such as vehicle registration services, access to social protection schemes, and a range of additional services (explored in detail in Chapter 9, urban governance in the SoSLC Report). Urban centres provide residents with health and education services: providing equitable access to quality healthcare and education. They also include services to facilitate social recreational activities and promote community cohesion, such as libraries, community centres and sports facilities. Ensuring quality services is a crucial component in securing an urban future for all Sri Lankans. 

Infrastructure
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Jaffna MC Area has extremely high coverage of water services with 98.9 per cent having access to safe drinking water but only 90 per cent of electrification coverage.
Waste Composition
Source - JICA
The results of the locally outsourced survey on waste composition in Kallundai Disposal site is given as waster composition in Jaffna MC
Solid waste collection and disposal (Per day)
Source - JICA
Almost 58.8 per cent households were covered for garbage collection, around 40 per cent households burning, burying or open dumping their garbage.

Environment

A city needs to have an environment that is habitable and conducive with appropriate spaces for people who use the city, while also being resilient in the face of increasing climate risk.

Aspects such as a cities’ air and water quality, quality of the built environment as well as the aesthetic and historic aspects in the city are things we need to look at. However, in the light of increasing disaster risk, managing climate change impact in the light of current urbanisation patterns becomes a key concern, and thus land use planning in a city needs to take this into account.

SDG targets 11.4 (safeguarding cultural and natural heritage) and 11.5 (reducing impacts of disasters, especially floods), 11.6 (air quality and waste) and  11.7 (safe, open and green spaces for all groups) all emphasize that for a city to be sustainable, these aspects need to be considered.

Climate risk exposure (1974-2017)
Source - Disaster Management Center
This graph clearly shows that climate exposure from 1974 to 2017, most of the people only affected due to flood and drought.

Thematic maps

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Detailed layer on the available land uses in the MC area is visualized in this map space.

Built-Up
  • Total Built-Up
    1514.34
  • Residential
    • High Rise
      • 1.10
    • Low Rise
      • 988.52
    • Slum
      • 2.45
  • Commercial
    • Retail
      • 58.49
    • Office
      • 15.05
    • Mixed Retail-Residential
      • 45.49
    • Banks
      • 2.75
  • Institutional
    • Education
      • University
        1.94
      • Other higher edu.
        7.43
      • School
        50.48
    • Health
      • Hospital
        8.21
      • Dispensary
        2.28
    • Government
      • 34.17
  • Industrial
    • Factory
      • 7.59
  • Transport
    • Bus Terminus
      • 1.16
    • Rail Terminus
      • 5.05
    • Port
      • 1.56
    • Airport
      • 0.17
    • Parking
      • 5.98
    • Roads
      • 154.01
  • Public Space
    • Park/Square
      • 16.84
    • Playground
      • 32.38
    • Cemetery
      • 4.28
  • Cultural
    • Religious
      • Temple/Shrine
        27.03
      • Church
        16.87
      • Mosque
        1.17
    • Archeologic
      • 16.38
  • Under Construction
      • 5.51
Non Built-up
  • Total Non Built-up
    396.26
  • Agriculture
      • 64.71
  • Water
      • 26.32
  • Forest
      • 1.89
  • Wetland
      • 2.27
  • Coastal area
      • 3.28
  • Shrub
      • 29.04
  • Barren Land
      • 268.75
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Legend

Detailed data layer on urban expansion in the MC area as well as in fringe area is visualized in this map space.

Urban Extent
Jaffna Municipal Council
  • Urban change 1995 - 2019
    5.01
  • Overall Growth rate 1995 - 2019
    0 %
  • TOTAL AOI
    0 KM2
  • Municipality
      • urban Expansion 1995 - 2019
        3.71 KM2
          • 1995
            Total Municipality
            19.12 KM2
            • Urban
              2.76 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              8.27 KM2
            • Non-Built
              7.82 KM2
            • Water
              0.27 KM2
          • 2001
            Total Municipality
            19.12 KM2
            • Urban
              3.56 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              8.81 KM2
            • Non-Built
              6.48 KM2
            • Water
              0.27 KM2
          • 2012
            Total Municipality
            19.1 KM2
            • Urban
              5.7 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              9.92 KM2
            • Non-Built
              3.21 KM2
            • Water
              0.27 KM2
          • 2017
            Total Municipality
            19.11 KM2
            • Urban
              7.53 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              10.58 KM2
            • Non-Built
              0.73 KM2
            • Water
              0.27 KM2
          • 2019
            Total Municipality
            0 KM2
            • Urban
              7.53 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              10.58 KM2
            • Non-Built
              0.73 KM2
            • Water
              0.27 KM2
  • Fringe
      • urban Expansion 1995 - 2019
        1.3 KM2
          • 1995
            Total Fringe
            99.66 KM2
            • Urban
              0.27 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              27.15 KM2
            • Non-Built
              50.93 KM2
            • Water
              21.31 KM2
          • 2001
            Total Fringe
            99.68 KM2
            • Urban
              0.35 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              31.47 KM2
            • Non-Built
              46.55 KM2
            • Water
              21.31 KM2
          • 2012
            Total Fringe
            99.67 KM2
            • Urban
              0.64 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              38.21 KM2
            • Non-Built
              39.51 KM2
            • Water
              21.31 KM2
          • 2017
            Total Fringe
            99.68 KM2
            • Urban
              0.98 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              40.79 KM2
            • Non-Built
              36.6 KM2
            • Water
              21.31 KM2
          • 2019
            Total Fringe
            0 KM2
            • Urban
              0.98 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              40.79 KM2
            • Non-Built
              36.6 KM2
            • Water
              21.31 KM2
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