Kandy Municipal Council

මහනුවර (mahanuvara)
கண்டி (kaɳɖi)
Kandy is the provincial capital city of Central Province. The city is a UNESCO Word Heritage site and a key tourist attraction for Sri Lanka. Kandy registered one of the highest share of in-migrants as proportion of total population.

POPULATION IN 2012 CENSUS

98,828

SoSLC ESTIMATE IN 2017

113,000

POPULATION DENSITY ESTIMATE IN 2017 (Est. population/Built up area)

72 persons / ha

MC ADMINISTRATIVE AREA

2,500ha

FRINGE URBAN AREA-2017

307 ha

Demography

  • Population
    113,000
  • urban extent
    2,500 ha
  • density
    72 Person/ha

The section which is about "People & Functions" provides a description of the demographic status and trends in Sri Lankan cities, based on 2012 census data. 

This section presents some of the demographic patterns and trends in Sri Lankan cities within its current boundaries, which provides information for better planning of our cities. If these demographic pointers are taken into account, cities can be more livable and better service the citizenry of Sri Lanka.

The demographic attributes and functions of Sri Lanka's cities have implications for policy makers and planners achieving a better urban future for all Sri Lankans from the following aspects:

Competitive

  • Sri Lanka’s cities benefit from a demographic dividend that can drive the urban economy;
  • Cities provide key functions that drive Sri Lanka’s economy, including commercial, industrial and transport infrastructure, and supporting social services;

Inclusive

  • Cities could be the gateways to the economy and social integration of the varied ethnic and religious groups in the country. This rich heritage can be capitalized on to promote tourism while also building up national integration and social cohesion.
  • Inclusive urban planning and universal design will allow the aging population be mobile and access public services.
  • Residents in remote urban centres lack the social and economic opportunities afforded to residents of the capital, Colombo;

Resilient

  • Cities provide a range of important sevices that are important for the population to respond to shocks and stresses.

Safe

  • Cities can provide a safe environment for female headed households, which can be enhanced through better lighting and policing of streets, and easy access to affordable housing and governance systems.

Sustainable

  • Sustainable urban development requires an appropriately skilled and educated workforce that can plan for the future while respond to current challenges
  • Providing equitable access to economic and social services across Sri Lanka’s cities will redistribute economic opportunities across, leading to diversified, balanced and, hence, sustainable economic development. 
Language competency
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Data showing the multinational language skills of ethnic group in 2012 in the Kandy Municipal Council
Sex Ratio (Female per every 100 Males) by age group
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Sex ratio is calculated as a proportion of males to females in the total population of Kandy MC. The graph indicates that the sex ratio remains roughly equal in the majority of age groups
Female Headed households and Male Headed Households with National Average
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
This graph shows the male and female headed families along with respective national average.
Migrant population by gender
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
This graph shows that more females migrated than males into the city in 2012.
Ethnic profile
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Kandy’s ethnic city makeup comprises a majority of 69.3% Sinhalese, followed by 15.5 % Sri Lanka Moor, 13.6 % Tamil, and 1.6% Other groups.
Reason for migration
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Female migrants are considering marriage and accompanying with a family member to migrate in to the city according to the data. employment opportunities are the main reason for male migrants.
Gender distribution by age

Education

Education has always been a significant element in societal development. The development of education facilities contributes substantially to the development in an urban area.

As a developing country it is crucial to address poverty in order to attain the development goals. Education plays a major role in poverty reduction. Presently, several global cities have been implementing the concept of smart city to improve the quality of life of the society, including in the field of education.

Good educational institutions and coverage enables a population to have decent livelihoods be they self employed or part of the workforce. Understanding how a city provides primary, secondary and tertiary eductional as well as skill development through vocational centres could provide some pointers to how well a city is doing or where it needs to develop further.

Category of Educational attainment by Gender( aged 3 - 24 years )
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Around 63 per cent attainment school education while 23 per cent not studying in this 3-24 aged group.
Highest Level of Education achieved by Gender
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
This graph shows that there is still a higher proportion of males that achieve a higher degree and above despite more females graduating from GCE (O/L) and GCE (A/L).
Computer literacy - ( Population aged 10 years and above )
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph shows computer literacy of age group by gender in Kandy MC in 2012

Transport

Connectivity is central to key GoSL strategic aims: to promote economic growth, and to rebalance growth across the country’s 9 provinces. Higher the connectivity to any city, better is the urban growth in that city. 

Detailed information on key transport aspects including bus and rail transport, freight route maps, airports and logistic systems are aspects that should be considered for a city to be properly interconnected within the bigger system. One of the SDG targets 11.2 is about access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems, road safety, public transport, and if we are to move towards being sustainble, these need to be considered in tranpsort planning. Further, the needs of people in vulnerable situations, women and children, persons with disabilities and older persons should also be considered.

ICT coverage is another way of being connected and recent technological advances enable a city to be better connected through its access to ICTs as well.

Accident statistics in Police Divisions (Number of fatal casualties)
Source - Sri Lanka Police Department
This graph shows fatal casualties within the last 3 years. There has been a substantial increase in fatal casualties mirroring the increased traffic in Kandy MC.
Number of Vehicles and Passengers by Mode - One Way, 24 Hours
Source - SOSLC Project
The route buses are the dominant type of vehicle in the area which tolerate the majority of the passengers. Motor cycles and cars/vans are also used in a considerable level.
Number of railway passengers annually
Source - Sri Lanka Railways
The graph shows that annual railway passengers from 2012 to 2016 in Kandy municipal council
Hourly traffic flow (in day time )
Source - SOSLC Project
Between 7 am to 9 am is the highest traffic period in the Kandy MC area with peak reached at 8 am due to school and work commuting traffic.
Modal share of vehicles entering in Municipal Council from 06 am to 06 pm (Percent)
Source - SOSLC Project
This highest percentage of vehicles entering into the Kandy MC area between 6 am to 6pm were private vehicles such as motorcycles and car/van/jeeps which cover around 85 per cent of the modal share. Route bus only has an 8 per cent modal share of vehicles.
Railway passengers coming into/from city center
Source - Sri Lanka Railways
Majority of the rail passengers are using main line to enter and exit the city according to the data.
Pedestrian crossing

Economy

Cities are the primary drivers of economic development, therefore, Sri Lanka’s cities have a decisive role to play in driving the economy forward by catalysing high value-added economic activities, as the country strives to achieve upper middle-income country status.

According the latest Word Cities report, 80 per cent of global GDP is created by cities, despite their accounting for less than 60 per cent of the world’s population (UN-Habitat, 2016).

The Government of Sri Lanka recognizes the role of urban economy in shaping the future of the country. In this respect, Vision 2025 and Public Investment Programme (PIP) 2017-2020 lays out the urban policy priority actions: to promote western region as economic hub of the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, and to promote strategic city development to secondary urban spaces as provincial economic hubs. 

It is also interesting to see how competitive a city is, taking into account current and potential roles of governments, businesses and the private sector in the economic development of the city and urban settlements, best use of human capital,  and labour force participation, and existing skills and the job market etc. within demarcated territory. 

Estimated City Competitiveness Index (CCI)
Source - SOSLC Project
Kandy is ranked as the third highest on the CCI following Colombo and Kurunegala as first and second respectively.
Estimated Gross domestic product per capita
Source - Central Bank Annual report 2017
This graph indicates the rise in estimated per capita GDP in Kandy MC.

Urban governance

Urban governance can be simplified as “how government (local, regional and national) and stakeholders decide on planning, financing and managing urban areas”. It involves a continuous process of negotiation and contestation over allocation of social and material resources and political power.

This section provide a snapshot of the emergent contours of urban governance in Sri Lanka, focusing on financial resilience, service provision and economic dynamism.

Information available here are collected and calculated considering secondary data sets, ground level surveys as well as stakeholder discussions. The city governance index has taken many a factor into consideration and provides a valuable way of assessing our cities and how they rank from a governance perspective.

City Governance Index
Source - SOSLC Project
Kandy is ranked as the 1st best city in City Governance Index (CGI).
Distribution of Local Authorities (by Province)
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
In Sri Lanka the LAs are divided into three types according to its population and size: Municipal Councils (MC, 23) which corresponds to the city, Urban Councils (UC, 41) which corresponds to the town, and Pradeshiya Sabha (PS, 271) which corresponds to the village. They are responsible for providing a variety of local public services including roads, sanitation, drains, waste collection, housing, libraries, public parks and recreational facilities.

Housing

An important function of Sri Lanka’s cities is to provide housing for the diversity of residents that support urban life. Sri Lankan early urban settlement legacy – histories, patterns, trends including land use and housing and the development challenges that come along with it have shaped the nature of our cities.

The share of housing as a proportion of built-up area across the different cities was considered, and numerous factors affect the figure. e.g. Anuradhapura, has restrictions on residential developments because of its cultural, historical and touristic importance, other MCs include significant social and economic land use, operating as a hub to surrounding suburbs and rural areas with large residential populations.

Housing policy challenges that are encountered by the city administrators relate to tenure systems, the supply of affordable, high quality housing, and difficulties accessing housing finance. 

Types of housing unit
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph indicates the typology of housing in the Kandy MC Area. The majority of housing (around 87 per cent) comprises single story and two story houses.
Types of housing
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
The graph indicate that in Kandy municipal council, almost 91.7 per cent of the houses were permanent in 2012

Municipal Services

Municipal services is one of the key tasks an urban centre carries out fto ensure a functional living condition for its citizens.

The access to municipal services and the quality of their provision strongly influence the social, economic and environmental performance of a city as well as urban development.

Urban centres provide key services that underpin Sri Lanka’s socioeconomic development. Cities provide key government administration functions, such as vehicle registration services, access to social protection schemes, and a range of additional services (explored in detail in Chapter 9, urban governance in the SoSLC Report). Urban centres provide residents with health and education services: providing equitable access to quality healthcare and education. They also include services to facilitate social recreational activities and promote community cohesion, such as libraries, community centres and sports facilities. Ensuring quality services is a crucial component in securing an urban future for all Sri Lankans. 

Infrastructure
Source - Department of Census and Statistics
Kandy MC Area has extremely high coverage of electricity and water services with 98 per cent having access to safe drinking water and electricity.
Solid waste collection and disposal (Per day)
Source - JICA
Almost 16.2 per cent households were not covered for garbage collection, around 13.8 per cent households burning, burying or open dumping their garbage.

Environment

A city needs to have an environment that is habitable and conducive with appropriate spaces for people who use the city, while also being resilient in the face of increasing climate risk.

Aspects such as a cities’ air and water quality, quality of the built environment as well as the aesthetic and historic aspects in the city are things we need to look at. However, in the light of increasing disaster risk, managing climate change impact in the light of current urbanisation patterns becomes a key concern, and thus land use planning in a city needs to take this into account.

SDG targets 11.4 (safeguarding cultural and natural heritage) and 11.5 (reducing impacts of disasters, especially floods), 11.6 (air quality and waste) and  11.7 (safe, open and green spaces for all groups) all emphasize that for a city to be sustainable, these aspects need to be considered.

Climate risk exposure (1974-2017)
Source - Disaster Management Center
The city is exposed to floods and landslides dominantly
Urban asserts and Landslide Risks
Air pollution due to transport
Source - National Building Research Organisation
The data elaborates the level of pollutants in the air due to transportation in the city. Recommended sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) levels are according to the WHO recommendations.

Thematic maps

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Detailed layer on the available land uses in the MC area is visualized in this map space.

Built-Up
  • Total Built-Up
    1618.62
  • Residential
    • High Rise
      • 0.84
    • Low Rise
      • 953.22
    • Slum
      • 10.38
  • Commercial
    • Retail
      • 155.99
    • Office
      • 3.37
    • Mixed Retail-Residential
      • 63.16
    • Banks
      • 1.89
  • Institutional
    • Education
      • University
        37.99
      • Other higher edu.
        10.15
      • School
        71.69
    • Health
      • Hospital
        22.5
      • Dispensary
        1.03
    • Government
      • 27.56
  • Industrial
    • Factory
      • 4.41
    • Landfill
      • 0.36
  • Transport
    • Bus Terminus
      • 1.84
    • Rail Terminus
      • 4.16
    • Airport
      • 0.07
    • Parking
      • 5.44
    • Roads
      • 27.14
    • Rail Road
      • 59.53
  • Public Space
    • Park/Square
      • 67.53
    • Playground
      • 29.97
    • Cemetery
      • 9.81
  • Cultural
    • Religious
      • Temple/Shrine
        29.03
      • Church
        3.53
      • Mosque
        1.92
    • Archeologic
      • 10.17
  • Under Construction
      • 3.94
Non Built-up
  • Total Non Built-up
    881.48
  • Agriculture
      • 103.77
  • Water
      • 180.09
  • Forest
      • 476.98
  • Reservation
      • 21.08
  • Wetland
      • 19.01
  • Shrub
      • 71.29
  • Barren Land
      • 9.26
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Detailed data layer on urban expansion in the MC area as well as in fringe area is visualized in this map space.

Urban Extent
Kandy Municipal Council
  • Urban change 1995 - 2019
    5.05
  • Overall Growth rate 1995 - 2019
    0 %
  • TOTAL AOI
    0 KM2
  • Municipality
      • urban Expansion 1995 - 2019
        4.23 KM2
          • 1995
            Total Municipality
            25.001 KM2
            • Urban
              1.72 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              6.28 KM2
            • Non-Built
              14.84 KM2
            • Water
              2.17 KM2
          • 2001
            Total Municipality
            25.001 KM2
            • Urban
              2.69 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              7.19 KM2
            • Non-Built
              12.96 KM2
            • Water
              2.17 KM2
          • 2012
            Total Municipality
            25.001 KM2
            • Urban
              4.94 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              8.85 KM2
            • Non-Built
              9.04 KM2
            • Water
              2.17 KM2
          • 2017
            Total Municipality
            25.001 KM2
            • Urban
              6.27 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              9.55 KM2
            • Non-Built
              7.02 KM2
            • Water
              2.17 KM2
          • 2019
            Total Municipality
            0 KM2
            • Urban
              6.27 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              9.55 KM2
            • Non-Built
              7.02 KM2
            • Water
              2.17 KM2
  • Fringe
      • urban Expansion 1995 - 2019
        0.82 KM2
          • 1995
            Total Fringe
            113.614 KM2
            • Urban
              1.08 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              7.6 KM2
            • Non-Built
              103.03 KM2
            • Water
              1.9 KM2
          • 2001
            Total Fringe
            113.614 KM2
            • Urban
              1.22 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              11.06 KM2
            • Non-Built
              99.44 KM2
            • Water
              1.9 KM2
          • 2012
            Total Fringe
            113.614 KM2
            • Urban
              2.03 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              19.36 KM2
            • Non-Built
              90.32 KM2
            • Water
              1.9 KM2
          • 2017
            Total Fringe
            113.614 KM2
            • Urban
              3.07 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              25.06 KM2
            • Non-Built
              83.58 KM2
            • Water
              1.9 KM2
          • 2019
            Total Fringe
            0 KM2
            • Urban
              3.07 KM2
            • Semi-Urban
              25.06 KM2
            • Non-Built
              83.58 KM2
            • Water
              1.9 KM2
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