1,065.6 ha
746 persons / ha

A city is a large human settlement. People are the main driving force in a city. The dynamism of a city is dependent  on people and their behaviour. A preliminary understanding of the composition and diverse capabilities of the populations in a city should be the key to a successful urban study.

Predictions made by identifying demographic and composition patterns of the population within the existing physical boundary will create a well-planned livable  city.


Population Growth rate

Source - Department of Census and Statistics / SoSLC

The data is considering population estimates of SoSLC for year 2017

Gender distribution by age

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Out of the total population within the Badulla Municipal Council limits, 46.9% are male and 53.1% are female. The proportion of the total population divided by age is 24.92% for children under 15, 24.76%, for those aged 15 - 29, 39.82% for those aged 30-59 and 12.29% for the elderly population over 60 year.

Download data file here

Composition of the Ethnic Profile - by Urban Area, District and Province

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Badulla’s ethnic city makeup comprises a majority of 73.4 per cent Sinhalese, followed by 14.4 per cent Sri Lanka Moor, 6.8 per cent Tamil, and 5.1 per cent Other groups.

Migration to city limits by years of residents

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The total male resident population in the Badulla Municipal Council area is 19809, the total female resident population is 22428 out of which the total male migrant population is 3834 and the total female migrant population is 4643. According to that the amount of female immigrants are comparatively higher than the male immigrants according to the data.

Download data file here

Reason for migration

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Employment is considered as the main reason for male population migration in to the city, and the females are migrated in the city is due to marriages and also considering employments as well as accompanying with a family member.

Download data file here

Sex Ratio (Female per every 100 Males) by age group

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The above figure shows the ratio of women to 100 men. The highest percentage (127%) is over 60 years old and the lowest percentage (94.5%) is between 15-29 years old.

Download data file here

Female Headed households and Male Headed Households with National Average

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

This describes how domestic leadership is divided into genders. Number of Male headed households are higher than the number of Female headed households in the municipal limit.

Download data file here

Language competency

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

This indicates that ethnic groups and their language abilities in 2012.

Download data file here


Education has always been a significant element in societal development. The development of education facilities contributes substantially to the development in an urban area.

As a developing country it is crucial to address poverty in order to attain the development goals. Education plays a major role in poverty reduction. Presently, several global cities have been implementing the concept of smart city to improve the quality of life of the society, including in the field of education.

Good educational institutions and coverage enables a population to have decent livelihoods be they self employed or part of the workforce. Understanding how a city provides primary, secondary and tertiary eductional as well as skill development through vocational centres could provide some pointers to how well a city is doing or where it needs to develop further.

Category of Educational attainment by Gender( aged 3 - 24 years )

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The graph shows that very few people entering higher studies even though basic school education of the Badulla MC has a good number of students.

Highest Level of Education achieved by Gender

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

This graph shows that there is still a higher proportion of males that achieve a higher degree and above despite more females graduating from GCE (O/L) and GCE (A/L).

Computer literacy - ( Population aged 10 years and above )

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

It shows the computer literacy of persons between the ages of 10 and 40 in terms of gender and it explains that 66% of men and 43% of women in the Badulla Municipal Council are computer literate.

Download data file here


Connectivity is central to key GoSL strategic aims: to promote economic growth, and to rebalance growth across the country’s 9 provinces. Higher the connectivity to any city, better is the urban growth in that city. 

Detailed information on key transport aspects including bus and rail transport, freight route maps, airports and logistic systems are aspects that should be considered for a city to be properly interconnected within the bigger system. One of the SDG targets 11.2 is about access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems, road safety, public transport, and if we are to move towards being sustainble, these need to be considered in tranpsort planning. Further, the needs of people in vulnerable situations, women and children, persons with disabilities and older persons should also be considered.

ICT coverage is another way of being connected and recent technological advances enable a city to be better connected through its access to ICTs as well.

Number of Inbound and Outbound Buses

Accident statistics in Police Divisions (Number of fatal casualties)

Source - Sri Lanka Police Department

This graph shows fatal casualties within the last 3 years in Badulla MC Area.

Download data file here

Number of Vehicles and Passengers by Mode - One Way, 24 Hours

Source - SOSLC Project

Used limit number of buses are holding the largest number of passengers in the city transport. there are considerably high number of private owned vehicles in the transport system which can be a reason to vehicular traffic in the system.

Number of railway passengers annually

Source - Sri Lanka Railways

The date records a increase in annual railway passengers from 2014 to 2016

Hourly traffic flow (in day time )

Source - SOSLC Project

Between 7 am to 9 am is the busiest traffic period in the Badulla MC area with peak reached at 8am due to school and work commuting traffic.

Modal share of vehicles entering in Municipal Council from 06 am to 06 pm (Percent)

Source - SOSLC Project

Use of privately owned vehicles like, motorcycles, car, van... are in a considerably high level in the city. number of buses which more passengers can be served are used in a minimum level.

Railway passengers coming into/from city center

Source - Sri Lanka Railways

majority of the rail passengers are using the main line to come in to the city and to leave from the city.

Pedestrian crossing

Source - SOSLC Project

The data is elaborating the pedestrian movements in the city.


Cities are the primary drivers of economic development, therefore, Sri Lanka’s cities have a decisive role to play in driving the economy forward by catalysing high value-added economic activities, as the country strives to achieve upper middle-income country status.

According the latest Word Cities report, 80 per cent of global GDP is created by cities, despite their accounting for less than 60 per cent of the world’s population (UN-Habitat, 2016).

The Government of Sri Lanka recognizes the role of urban economy in shaping the future of the country. In this respect, Vision 2025 and Public Investment Programme (PIP) 2017-2020 lays out the urban policy priority actions: to promote western region as economic hub of the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, and to promote strategic city development to secondary urban spaces as provincial economic hubs. 

It is also interesting to see how competitive a city is, taking into account current and potential roles of governments, businesses and the private sector in the economic development of the city and urban settlements, best use of human capital,  and labour force participation, and existing skills and the job market etc. within demarcated territory. 

Estimated City Competitiveness Index (CCI)

Source - SOSLC Project

Badulla is ranked as the least on the city competitiveness indes (CCI). The graph indicates the CCI of Badulla by categories is lower than compared to the average across the nine provincial capital cities.

Estimated Gross domestic product per capita

Source - Central Bank Annual report 2017

This graph indicates the gradual rise in estimated per capita GDP in Badulla MC.

Urban Governance

Urban governance can be simplified as “how government (local, regional and national) and stakeholders decide on planning, financing and managing urban areas”. It involves a continuous process of negotiation and contestation over allocation of social and material resources and political power.

This section provide a snapshot of the emergent contours of urban governance in Sri Lanka, focusing on financial resilience, service provision and economic dynamism.

Information available here are collected and calculated considering secondary data sets, ground level surveys as well as stakeholder discussions. The city governance index has taken many a factor into consideration and provides a valuable way of assessing our cities and how they rank from a governance perspective.

City Governance Index

Source - SOSLC Project

Badulla MC is ranked as 6th in the City Governance Index and scored a high of 74.72 in the ‘Service Delivery Coverage’ and low of 20.83 in ‘Accountability and Equity’.

Distribution of Local Authorities (by Province)

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

In Sri Lanka the LAs are divided into three types according to its population and size: Municipal Councils (MC, 23) which corresponds to the city, Urban Councils (UC, 41) which corresponds to the town, and Pradeshiya Sabha (PS, 271) which corresponds to the village. They are responsible for providing a variety of local public services including roads, sanitation, drains, waste collection, housing, libraries, public parks and recreational facilities. This pie chart shows the distribution of LAs by province in particular local authority belongs. Uwa province consist with 2 MC’s , 1 UC and 25 PS’s. Badulla is the provincial capital city of Uwa province.


An important function of Sri Lanka’s cities is to provide housing for the diversity of residents that support urban life. Sri Lankan early urban settlement legacy – histories, patterns, trends including land use and housing and the development challenges that come along with it have shaped the nature of our cities.

The share of housing as a proportion of built-up area across the different cities was considered, and numerous factors affect the figure. e.g. Anuradhapura, has restrictions on residential developments because of its cultural, historical and touristic importance, other MCs include significant social and economic land use, operating as a hub to surrounding suburbs and rural areas with large residential populations.

Housing policy challenges that are encountered by the city administrators relate to tenure systems, the supply of affordable, high quality housing, and difficulties accessing housing finance. 

Housing and Average size of the household

Source - Department of Census and Statistics and Resource Profile, Badulla PS

With the development of administration activities in Badulla city, residential population within Badulla MC Area has risen rapidly. At the same time, when compared to previous years, thenumber of houses within the MC area also has been increased. Department of Census and Statistics data in 1992, 2001 years and Resource profile of the 2016 shows the continuous increase of the housing. 62% of the land within Badulla area is under residential use. Therefore, it can be considered as a residential city.This is mainly due to the employees who are working in the government and private sectors are willing to locate their residences within the MC area itself. However still there are under-utilized lands within the town center.

Land Ownership

Source - Divisional Secretary Office, Badulla, 2017

One salient feature to be mentioned here is that 60% of the land within Badulla South Grama Niladhari Division is owned by Kataragama Devalaya where majority is dominated by commercial activities.

Types of housing unit

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The graph indicates the typology of housing in the Badulla MC Area. The majority of housing (around 90 percent) comprises single story and two story houses.

Types of housing

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The graph indicate that in Badulla Municipal council almost 89 per cent of the houses were permanent in 2012

Municipal Services

Municipal services is one of the key tasks an urban centre carries out fto ensure a functional living condition for its citizens.

The access to municipal services and the quality of their provision strongly influence the social, economic and environmental performance of a city as well as urban development.

Urban centres provide key services that underpin Sri Lanka’s socioeconomic development. Cities provide key government administration functions, such as vehicle registration services, access to social protection schemes, and a range of additional services (explored in detail in Chapter 9, urban governance in the SoSLC Report). Urban centres provide residents with health and education services: providing equitable access to quality healthcare and education. They also include services to facilitate social recreational activities and promote community cohesion, such as libraries, community centres and sports facilities. Ensuring quality services is a crucial component in securing an urban future for all Sri Lankans. 


Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Badulla MC Area has extremely high coverage of electricity and water services with 98 per cent and 95 percent having access to safe drinking water and electricity respectively.

Solid waste collection and disposal (Per day)

Source - JICA

70 percent households are covered for garbage collection in the MC ares. Majority of the remaining 30 percent households are burning the solid waste as a disposal method.


A city needs to have an environment that is habitable and conducive with appropriate spaces for people who use the city, while also being resilient in the face of increasing climate risk.

Aspects such as a cities’ air and water quality, quality of the built environment as well as the aesthetic and historic aspects in the city are things we need to look at. However, in the light of increasing disaster risk, managing climate change impact in the light of current urbanisation patterns becomes a key concern, and thus land use planning in a city needs to take this into account.

SDG targets 11.4 (safeguarding cultural and natural heritage) and 11.5 (reducing impacts of disasters, especially floods), 11.6 (air quality and waste) and  11.7 (safe, open and green spaces for all groups) all emphasize that for a city to be sustainable, these aspects need to be considered.

Flood Data

Source - Disaster Management Center

There is only one recorded flood event in Badulla urban area in year 2016. Located in the hill country, the flood events are not often in the area. Still, several locations in Badulla district are affected due to flood and records are available for year 2012, 2014, 2015 and 2016.

Annual average air temperature at observation stations

Source - Department of Meteorology

Here is the change in the annual values of air temprature from 2006 to 2013. According to the Badulla Observatory station, air temprature in the area is calculated separately for each month and more information can be downloaded from the following detailed statistics.

Download data file here

Climate risk exposure(1974-2017)

Source - Disaster Management Center

This graph indicates that climate exposure from 1974 to 2017. Due to land slides and floods most of the people were effected.

Thematic maps



Badulla Municipal area:

Badulla Municipal Council covers an area of 1065 hectares. (Data Source _ Urban Development Authority)

Download Map Here                               Download Data Layer Here



Map of Distribution of Grama Niladhari Divisions in Badulla Administrative Limits:

The ethnic / sex / age composition in the Colombo Municipal Council area, detailed for each of its 13 Grama Niladhari Divisions. (Data Source _ Department of Census and Statistics)

Download Map Here                                 Download Data Layer Here



Landslide risk map in Badulla Municipal Council area:

Landslide risk is classified as high risk, low risk and medium risk (Source: NBRO)

 Download Map Here                               Download Data Layer Here

Below you can download all of the above data maps and data layers (under Download HD Map and Download Spatial Data).

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Proper management of land, a scarce resource, can bring about many benefits. This is of great importance especially in urban areas.


It is timely to figure out how land is allocated and being used for what purpose in our cities today. In order to create well planned cities with a futuristic vision, having a better understanding of current land use is imperative.


Land use maps are categorized into 36 sub-categories under two types – built-up and non built-up. The extent of land in each of these sub categories are indicated below.


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731.86 (ha)
  • High Rise
    • 0.21
    Low Rise
    • 563.19
  • Retail
    • 43.20
    • 1.27
    Mixed Retail-Residential
    • 0.82
    • 0.93
  • Education
    • University 2.75
    • Other higher edu. 2.80
    • School 10.62
    • Hospital 6.27
    • Dispensary 0.17
    • 15.73
  • Factory
    • 2.52
  • Bus Terminus
    • 2.28
    Rail Terminus
    • 1.23
    • 0.21
    • 48.14
  • Park/Square
    • 6.36
    • 11.07
    • 2.43
  • Religious
    • Temple/Shrine 7.41
    • Church 1.58
    • Mosque 0.46
    • 0.21
333.71 (ha)
    • 93.60
    • 24.89
    • 41.92
    • 154.09
    • 19.21


Proper management of land, a scarce resource, can bring about many benefits. This is of great importance especially in urban areas.


It is timely to figure out how land is allocated and being used for what purpose in our cities today. In order to create well planned cities with a futuristic vision, having a better understanding of current land use is imperative.


Land use maps are categorized into 36 sub-categories under two types – built-up and non built-up. The extent of land in each of these sub categories are indicated below.


Filter Map
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Urban expansion statistics
Badulla Municipal Council ( km 2 )
Overall Growth rate 1995 - 2017 6.42%
Urban change 1995 - 2017 11.11
    • 1995
      • Total Municipality 10.67
      • Urban 0.83
      • Semi-Urban 2.27
      • Non-Built 7.23
      • Water 0.34
    • 2001
      • Total Municipality 10.65
      • Urban 1.49
      • Semi-Urban 2.34
      • Non-Built 6.48
      • Water 0.34
    • 2012
      • Total Municipality 10.66
      • Urban 3.19
      • Semi-Urban 2.61
      • Non-Built 4.52
      • Water 0.34
    • 2017
      • Total Municipality 10.66
      • Urban 4.61
      • Semi-Urban 2.85
      • Non-Built 2.86
      • Water 0.34
    • 1995
      • Total Fringe 85.46
      • Urban 1.87
      • Semi-Urban 5.19
      • Non-Built 77.74
      • Water 0.66
    • 2001
      • Total Fringe 85.47
      • Urban 2.9
      • Semi-Urban 7.12
      • Non-Built 74.79
      • Water 0.66
    • 2012
      • Total Fringe 85.46
      • Urban 4.86
      • Semi-Urban 10.62
      • Non-Built 69.32
      • Water 0.66
    • 2017
      • Total Fringe 85.46
      • Urban 5.98
      • Semi-Urban 12.55
      • Non-Built 66.27
      • Water 0.66