2,500 ha
72 persons / ha

A city is a large human settlement. People are the main driving force in a city. The dynamism of a city is dependent  on people and their behaviour. A preliminary understanding of the composition and diverse capabilities of the populations in a city should be the key to a successful urban study.

Predictions made by identifying demographic and composition patterns of the population within the existing physical boundary will create a well-planned livable  city.


Comparison of Population in Sri Lanka with Council Area

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Comparison of Population in Sri Lanka with Kandy District and Kandy Municipal Council Area from year 1881 to 2012.(Data in Thousands)

Language competency

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Data showing the multinational language skills of ethnic group in 2012 in the Kandy Municipal Council.

Download data file here

Sex Ratio (Female per every 100 Males) by age group

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Sex ratio is calculated as a proportion of males to females in the total population of Kandy MC. The graph indicates that the sex ratio remains roughly equal in the majority of age groups.

Download data file here

Female-Headed households and Male-Headed Households with National Average

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

This describes how domestic leadership is divided into genders. Number of Male headed households are higher than the number of Female headed households in the municipal limit.

Download data file here

Composition of the Ethnic Profile - by Urban Area, District, and Province

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Kandy’s ethnic city makeup comprises a majority of 69.3% Sinhalese, followed by 15.5 % Sri Lanka Moor, 13.6 % Tamil, and 1.6% Other groups.

Population Growth rate

Source - Department of Census and Statistics and SoSLC

The data is considering population estimations of SoSLC for year 2017

Reason for migration

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Employment is considered as the main reason for male population migration in to the city, and the females are migrated in the city is due to marriages and also considering employments as well as accompanying with a family member.

Download data file here

Gender distribution by age

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Out of the total population within the Kandy Municipal Council limits, 48.59% are male and 51.41% are female. The proportion of the total population divided by age is 22.59% for children under 15, 22.49%, for those aged 15 - 29, 40.07% for those aged 30-59 and 14.83% for the elderly population over 60 year.

Download data file here

Migration to city limits by years of residents

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The total male resident population in the Kandy Municipal Council area is 48023, the total female resident population is 50805 out of which the total male migrant population is 1,393 and the total female migrant population is 50,805. According to that the amount of female inmigrants are comparatively higher than the male inmigrants.

Download data file here


Education has always been a significant element in societal development. The development of education facilities contributes substantially to the development in an urban area.

As a developing country it is crucial to address poverty in order to attain the development goals. Education plays a major role in poverty reduction. Presently, several global cities have been implementing the concept of smart city to improve the quality of life of the society, including in the field of education.

Good educational institutions and coverage enables a population to have decent livelihoods be they self employed or part of the workforce. Understanding how a city provides primary, secondary and tertiary eductional as well as skill development through vocational centres could provide some pointers to how well a city is doing or where it needs to develop further.

Category of Educational attainment by Gender( aged 3 - 24 years )

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Around 63 per cent attainment school education while 23 per cent not studying in this 3-24 aged group.

Highest Level of Education achieved by Gender

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

This graph shows that there is still a higher proportion of males that achieve a higher degree and above despite more females graduating from GCE (O/L) and GCE (A/L).

Computer literacy - ( Population aged 10 years and above )

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

It shows the computer literacy of persons between the ages of 10 and 40 in terms of gender and it explains that 68% of men and 43% of women in the Kandy Municipal Council are computer literate.

Download data file here


Connectivity is central to key GoSL strategic aims: to promote economic growth, and to rebalance growth across the country’s 9 provinces. Higher the connectivity to any city, better is the urban growth in that city. 

Detailed information on key transport aspects including bus and rail transport, freight route maps, airports and logistic systems are aspects that should be considered for a city to be properly interconnected within the bigger system. One of the SDG targets 11.2 is about access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems, road safety, public transport, and if we are to move towards being sustainble, these need to be considered in tranpsort planning. Further, the needs of people in vulnerable situations, women and children, persons with disabilities and older persons should also be considered.

ICT coverage is another way of being connected and recent technological advances enable a city to be better connected through its access to ICTs as well.

Accident statistics in Police Divisions (Number of fatal casualties)

Source - Sri Lanka Police Department

Accident is an undesired or unintended happening. Inevitable accident falls within the concept of fatal or an unfortunate harmful event, event without apparent cause unexpected occurring. A Motor Traffic Accident occurs on highway collision with vehicles, persons or with property. An Accidents may occur, between a vehicle and other vehicle, vehicle colliding with a person, vehicle colliding with movable or unmovable property, when a vehicle goes off the road, A person being knocked down with another person or due to natural or man made disaster. Here are the details of the fatal road accidents that have taken place within the Kandy Police Division within the last few years. In addition, the following data file contains further details covering the entire country with an accident classification in varios sub sections.

Download data file here

Number of Vehicles and Passengers by Mode - One Way, 24 Hours

Source - SOSLC Project

The route buses are the dominant type of vehicle in the area which tolerate the majority of the passengers. Motor cycles and cars/vans are also used in a considerable level.

Number of railway passengers annually

Source - Sri Lanka Railways

The graph shows that annual railway passengers from 2012 to 2016 in Kandy municipal council

Hourly traffic flow (in the day time)

Source - SOSLC Project

Between 7 am to 9 am is the highest traffic period in the Kandy MC area with peak reached at 8 am due to school and work commuting traffic.

The modal share of vehicles entering in Municipal Council from 06 am to 06 pm (Percent)

Source - SOSLC Project

This highest percentage of vehicles entering into the Kandy MC area between 6 am to 6pm were private vehicles such as motorcycles and car/van/jeeps which cover around 85 per cent of the modal share. Route bus only has an 8 per cent modal share of vehicles.

Railway passengers coming into/from city center

Source - Sri Lanka Railways

Majority of the rail passengers are using main line to enter and exit the city according to the data.

Pedestrian’s movement

Source - SOSLC Project

The data is elaborating the pedestrian movements in the city.


Cities are the primary drivers of economic development, therefore, Sri Lanka’s cities have a decisive role to play in driving the economy forward by catalysing high value-added economic activities, as the country strives to achieve upper middle-income country status.

According the latest Word Cities report, 80 per cent of global GDP is created by cities, despite their accounting for less than 60 per cent of the world’s population (UN-Habitat, 2016).

The Government of Sri Lanka recognizes the role of urban economy in shaping the future of the country. In this respect, Vision 2025 and Public Investment Programme (PIP) 2017-2020 lays out the urban policy priority actions: to promote western region as economic hub of the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, and to promote strategic city development to secondary urban spaces as provincial economic hubs. 

It is also interesting to see how competitive a city is, taking into account current and potential roles of governments, businesses and the private sector in the economic development of the city and urban settlements, best use of human capital,  and labour force participation, and existing skills and the job market etc. within demarcated territory. 

Estimated City Competitiveness Index (CCI)

Source - SOSLC Project

Kandy is ranked as the third highest on the CCI following Colombo and Kurunegala as first and second respectively.

Estimated Gross domestic product per capita

Source - Central Bank Annual report 2017

This graph indicates the rise in estimated per capita GDP in Kandy MC.

Urban Governance

Urban governance can be simplified as “how government (local, regional and national) and stakeholders decide on planning, financing and managing urban areas”. It involves a continuous process of negotiation and contestation over allocation of social and material resources and political power.

This section provide a snapshot of the emergent contours of urban governance in Sri Lanka, focusing on financial resilience, service provision and economic dynamism.

Information available here are collected and calculated considering secondary data sets, ground level surveys as well as stakeholder discussions. The city governance index has taken many a factor into consideration and provides a valuable way of assessing our cities and how they rank from a governance perspective.

City Governance Index

Source - SOSLC Project

Kandy is ranked as the 1st best city in City Governance Index (CGI).

Distribution of Local Authorities (by Province)

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

In Sri Lanka the LAs are divided into three types according to its population and size: Municipal Councils (MC, 23) which corresponds to the city, Urban Councils (UC, 41) which corresponds to the town, and Pradeshiya Sabha (PS, 271) which corresponds to the village. They are responsible for providing a variety of local public services including roads, sanitation, drains, waste collection, housing, libraries, public parks and recreational facilities.


An important function of Sri Lanka’s cities is to provide housing for the diversity of residents that support urban life. Sri Lankan early urban settlement legacy – histories, patterns, trends including land use and housing and the development challenges that come along with it have shaped the nature of our cities.

The share of housing as a proportion of built-up area across the different cities was considered, and numerous factors affect the figure. e.g. Anuradhapura, has restrictions on residential developments because of its cultural, historical and touristic importance, other MCs include significant social and economic land use, operating as a hub to surrounding suburbs and rural areas with large residential populations.

Housing policy challenges that are encountered by the city administrators relate to tenure systems, the supply of affordable, high quality housing, and difficulties accessing housing finance. 

Types of housing unit

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The graph indicates the typology of housing in the Kandy MC Area. The majority of housing (around 87 per cent) comprises single story and two story houses.

Download data file here

Types of housing

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The graph indicate that in Kandy municipal council, almost 91.7 per cent of the houses were permanent in 2012.

Download data file here

Building Units

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Building Units is calculated as a proportion of Divisions in the total Hosing Units of Kandy MC. The graph indicates that the Building Units of Area.

Municipal Services

Municipal services is one of the key tasks an urban centre carries out fto ensure a functional living condition for its citizens.

The access to municipal services and the quality of their provision strongly influence the social, economic and environmental performance of a city as well as urban development.

Urban centres provide key services that underpin Sri Lanka’s socioeconomic development. Cities provide key government administration functions, such as vehicle registration services, access to social protection schemes, and a range of additional services (explored in detail in Chapter 9, urban governance in the SoSLC Report). Urban centres provide residents with health and education services: providing equitable access to quality healthcare and education. They also include services to facilitate social recreational activities and promote community cohesion, such as libraries, community centres and sports facilities. Ensuring quality services is a crucial component in securing an urban future for all Sri Lankans. 


Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Kandy MC Area has extremely high coverage of electricity and water services with 98 per cent having access to safe drinking water and electricity.

Solid waste collection and disposal (Per day)

Source - JICA

Almost 16.2 per cent households were not covered for garbage collection, around 13.8 per cent households burning, burying or open dumping their garbage.

Solid Waste Generation and Collection

Source - IWMI Publication - Solid and Liquid Waste Management and Resource Recovery in Sri Lanka: A 20 city analysis

The Kandy city is a commercial hub attracting many businessmen, making the day time floating population very high. Also it attracts so many local and foreign tourists especially during the “Kandy Perahera” season. Solid waste management in Kandy city is quite a challenge to the municipal council due to these reasons. There are many industries and agricultural practices increasing the amount of solid waste generated. Unlike most local authorities where SWM is a task of the health and sanitation department, there is a separate unit established within the Kandy Municipal Council (KMC) for solid waste management. The collection of solid waste is commendable. Source separation is carried out under thorough monitoring and inspection by the KMC.


A city needs to have an environment that is habitable and conducive with appropriate spaces for people who use the city, while also being resilient in the face of increasing climate risk.

Aspects such as a cities’ air and water quality, quality of the built environment as well as the aesthetic and historic aspects in the city are things we need to look at. However, in the light of increasing disaster risk, managing climate change impact in the light of current urbanisation patterns becomes a key concern, and thus land use planning in a city needs to take this into account.

SDG targets 11.4 (safeguarding cultural and natural heritage) and 11.5 (reducing impacts of disasters, especially floods), 11.6 (air quality and waste) and  11.7 (safe, open and green spaces for all groups) all emphasize that for a city to be sustainable, these aspects need to be considered.

Climate risk exposure(1974-2017)

Source - Disaster Management Center

The city is exposed to floods and landslides dominantly

Urban asserts and Landslide Risks

Source - SOSLC Project

the data is visualizing the urban asserts at risk of Landslide.

Air pollution due to transport

Source - National Building Research Organisation

The data elaborates the level of pollutants in the air due to transportation in the city. Recommended sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) levels are according to the WHO recommendations.

Flood Data

Source - Disaster Management Center

Kandy MC is not an urban area which undergo frequent large scale flood. According to the records, it only mark 2 houses damaged due to flood in 2012. Still the streets and some low line areas within the city limit are affected from flash floods in rainy seasons. Considering the district level, year 2014 and 2015 records flood incidents which includes deaths (2014 - 1 person, 2015- 2 persons) due to flood and damages on houses and families (2014 - 201 houses damaged and 527 families affected).

Annual rainfall at observation station

Source - Department of Meteorology

Here is the change in the annual values of rainfall from 2008 to 2013. According to the Katugasthota Observatory station, rainfall in the area is calculated separately for each month and more information can be downloaded from the following detailed statistics.

Download data file here

Annual average air temperature at observation stations

Source - Department of Meteorology

Here is the change in the annual values of air temprature from 2006 to 2013. According to the Katugasthota Observatory station, air temprature in the area is calculated separately for each month and more information can be downloaded from the following detailed statistics.

Download data file here


Health conditions (mortality, morbidity, disability) depend not just on standards of living, but on the actual performance of health systems themselves.

Reported dengue cases - District level and Local Authority level

Source - Dengue Database - Central Province (

The daily dengue cases and the steps taken by the local authorities to prevent them are included in the database It contains information on dengue patients reported from local authorities in all three districts of the Central Province. A summary of that information is included here. Here is the record number of dengue patients in the Kandy Municipal Council compared to the Kandy District. The highest number of dengue patients in the Kandy District is reported from the Kandy Municipal Council.

Download data file here

Thematic maps



Kandy Municipal Council Limits:

Kandy Municipal Council included land extent of 2,500 hectares.(Data Source _ Survey Deparement)

Download Map Here                                    Download Data Layer Here



Kandy Municipal Council Limits with Grama Niladhari Divisions:

Kandy Municipal Council Limits comprising 45 Grama Niladhari Divisions are spread over 4 Divisional Secretariat Divisions. They are Harispattuwa, Gangawata Korale, Pathadumbara and Yatinuwara.(Data source_Kandy Municipal Council)

Download Map Here                                       Download Data Layer Here



Terrain map of Kandy City:

Kandy situated in hill country so terrain is an important feature for any development. So the height differences are given here in the range from 430 m to 900 m with a contour interval of 10 m.(Data source_Kandy Municipal Council)

Download Map Here      Download Data Layer Here            


Road Network within Kandy Municipal Council Limits:

Roads are classified by its nature.(Data source Kandy Municipal Council)

Download Map Here      Download Data Layer Here                      



Building in Kandy Municipal Council: (Data Source Kandy Municipal Council)

Download Map Here                         


Soil Types in Kandy MC: 

This shows the distribution of the soil according to its geographical location.  (Data Source Kandy Municipal Council)     

Download Map Here      Download Data Layer Here  


Water ways in Kandy MC:

Here is a map of the waterways belonging to the Kandy Municipal Council (Data Source Kandy Municipal Council)     

Download Map Here       Download Data Layer Here 


The above data layers and prepared maps can be downloaded at once using the link option below. (Download HD Map & Download Spatial Layers)

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Proper management of land, a scarce resource, can bring about many benefits. This is of great importance especially in urban areas.


It is timely to figure out how land is allocated and being used for what purpose in our cities today. In order to create well planned cities with a futuristic vision, having a better understanding of current land use is imperative.


Land use maps are categorized into 36 sub-categories under two types – built-up and non built-up. The extent of land in each of these sub categories are indicated below.


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The Kandy Municipal Council covers an area of ​​2500 hectares and 45 Grama Niladhari Divisions within that limits. (For detailed information, please refer to the thematic maps section under the City Information page)


The kandy Municipal area, known as the capital city of Central Province, has built-up land area (1618 hectares) and it covers 64.7% of the total land area. Non built-up land is (881.5 ha) which is just 35.3%.


The built-up land has been categorized under six main categories as residential, commercial, institutional, industrial, transport, public space, cultural and under construction. Non built-up land has been divided into six sub-categories as agriculture, water, forest, wetlands, conservations and barren lands. The built-up land is again divided into 30 subsections. (More information on the respective land use is listed below with charts and land area)

For commercial, industrial and institutional purposes, 78.5 hectares, 1.8 hectares and 100.6 hectares of land are occupied (7.1%, 0.2% and 9.1% of the total land area respectively)



 Download data layer here


SoSLC project
1618.62 (ha)
  • High Rise
    • 0.84
    Low Rise
    • 953.22
    • 10.38
  • Retail
    • 155.99
    • 3.37
    Mixed Retail-Residential
    • 63.16
    • 1.89
  • Education
    • University 37.99
    • Other higher edu. 10.15
    • School 71.69
    • Hospital 22.5
    • Dispensary 1.03
    • 27.56
  • Factory
    • 4.41
    • 0.36
  • Bus Terminus
    • 1.84
    Rail Terminus
    • 4.16
    • 0.07
    • 5.44
    • 27.14
    Rail Road
    • 59.53
  • Park/Square
    • 67.53
    • 29.97
    • 9.81
  • Religious
    • Temple/Shrine 29.03
    • Church 3.53
    • Mosque 1.92
    • 10.17
    • 3.94
SoSLC project
881.48 (ha)
    • 103.77
    • 180.09
    • 476.98
    • 21.08
    • 19.01
    • 71.29
    • 9.26


In all of the cities it can be identified that the higher densities are concentrated in the city centres and the expansion is taken place along the roads. The expansion pattern is shaped by the geography of the surrounding area.


The selection of the area for the urban expansion analysis was followed by several preliminary studies. Initially, the urban index values which was identified using the remote sensing information were studied in the respective municipal areas including a fringe area.
Before selecting interested area for the expansion analysis it should consider following facts
- Municipal boundary
- At least 2-3 km buffer around Municipal boundary
- Rough boundary where the physical urban character disappearing


In the remote sensing discipline, the values higher than 0 represent the built-up areas.The boundary for the fringe area was identified by getting the extent of urban expansion as well as a fine boundary where the high-density expansion become insignificant. The identified boundaries were projected on to the latest satellite images to assure the identified urban index values are in line with the existing building densities.



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Urban expansion statistics
SoSLC project
Kandy Municipal Council ( km 2 )
Overall Growth rate 1995 - 2017 5.63%
Urban change 1995 - 2017 5.05
TOTAL AOI 138.615453
    • 1995
      • Total Municipality 25.001
      • Urban 1.72
      • Semi-Urban 6.28
      • Non-Built 14.84
      • Water 2.17
    • 2001
      • Total Municipality 25.001
      • Urban 2.69
      • Semi-Urban 7.19
      • Non-Built 12.96
      • Water 2.17
    • 2012
      • Total Municipality 25.001
      • Urban 4.94
      • Semi-Urban 8.85
      • Non-Built 9.04
      • Water 2.17
    • 2017
      • Total Municipality 25.001
      • Urban 6.27
      • Semi-Urban 9.55
      • Non-Built 7.02
      • Water 2.17
    • 1995
      • Total Fringe 113.614
      • Urban 1.08
      • Semi-Urban 7.6
      • Non-Built 103.03
      • Water 1.9
    • 2001
      • Total Fringe 113.614
      • Urban 1.22
      • Semi-Urban 11.06
      • Non-Built 99.44
      • Water 1.9
    • 2012
      • Total Fringe 113.614
      • Urban 2.03
      • Semi-Urban 19.36
      • Non-Built 90.32
      • Water 1.9
    • 2017
      • Total Fringe 113.614
      • Urban 3.07
      • Semi-Urban 25.06
      • Non-Built 83.58
      • Water 1.9