Demography
Population
25000
ADMINISTRATIVE AREA
1411.26 ha
Density
17.38 persons / ha

A city is a large human settlement. People are the main driving force in a city. The dynamism of a city is dependent  on people and their behaviour. A preliminary understanding of the composition and diverse capabilities of the populations in a city should be the key to a successful urban study.

Predictions made by identifying demographic and composition patterns of the population within the existing physical boundary will create a well-planned livable  city.
 
 
 
 
 

 

Ethnicity

Source - Statistical Hand Book 2019 District Secretariat, Mannar

The above data shows the ethnicity of the population within the limits of Mannar Divisional Secretariat in 2018 and 1981. It is noteworthy that despite the increase in the Muslim and Tamil populations, there has been a significant decline in the Sinhala population within this Mannar Divisional Secretariat area.

Download data file here

Population and number of families by year

Source - Statistical Hand Book (District Secretariat) 2019

The chart above shows the population and number of families in the entire Mannar District over the years. It is noteworthy that there was a clear decline in the population of Mannar during the war. Download the data file below for more information.

Download data file here

Language competency

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Data showing the multinational language skills of ethnic group in 2012 in the Mannar Urban Council.

Download data file here

Composition of the Ethnic Profile - by Urban Area, District and Province

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

According to the Census, Survey conducted in 2012, within the Mannar Urban Council limits Sri Lankan Tamils, Moors and Sinhalese the main ethnic groups constitute 21403, 2047 and 765 respectively. That figures for the Mannar district are 80103, 16436 and 2305 respectively and in the Northern Province 988186, 32796 and 31985 respectively. The lowest percentage of the Tamil population in Sri Lanka is 80% reported from Mannar district and the Sri Lankan Tamil population in Mannar city has increased to 88%.

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Gender distribution by age

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The age distribution of population has been represented by the sample size of 100. Out of these population 8% represents over 60age, 38% represents 30-59age, 26% represents 15-29age, 28% represents less than 15age.

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Migration to city limits by years of residents

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The total male resident population in the Mannar Urban Council area is 12173, the total female resident population is 12244 out of which the total male migrant population is 4601 and the total female migrant population is 4380. According to that the amount of male inmigrants are comparatively higher than the female inmigrants..

Download data file here

Gender Distribution

Source - Statistical Hand Book (District Secretariat) 2019

Out of the total population within the Mannar Urban Council limits in the year 2018, 50.1% are male and 49.9% are female.Further information on this can be obtained by downloading the following data file which also contains information at the level of all the District Secretariats pertaining to the Mannar District.

Download data file here

Population by age groups

Source - Statistical Hand Book 2019 District Secretariat, Mannar

The graph elaborates the population with age categories in the area. The data here covers the entire Mannar Divisional Secretariat in the year of 2018. By downloading the data file below, you can get the detailed data on the population by age groups for each of the Divisional Secretariat in Mannar district separately.

Download data file here

Education

Education has always been a significant element in societal development. The development of education facilities contributes substantially to the development in an urban area.

As a developing country it is crucial to address poverty in order to attain the development goals. Education plays a major role in poverty reduction. Presently, several global cities have been implementing the concept of smart city to improve the quality of life of the society, including in the field of education.

Good educational institutions and coverage enables a population to have decent livelihoods be they self employed or part of the workforce. Understanding how a city provides primary, secondary and tertiary eductional as well as skill development through vocational centres could provide some pointers to how well a city is doing or where it needs to develop further.

Classification of schools

Source - Zonal Education Office, Mannar

There are totally of 7 schools and 4 special education units in the area under the Mannar Urban Council. Among them 1AB schools 4, 1C school 1, TYPE 1 school 1, TYPE 3 school 1 are found.

Transport

Connectivity is central to key GoSL strategic aims: to promote economic growth, and to rebalance growth across the country’s 9 provinces. Higher the connectivity to any city, better is the urban growth in that city. 

Detailed information on key transport aspects including bus and rail transport, freight route maps, airports and logistic systems are aspects that should be considered for a city to be properly interconnected within the bigger system. One of the SDG targets 11.2 is about access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems, road safety, public transport, and if we are to move towards being sustainble, these need to be considered in tranpsort planning. Further, the needs of people in vulnerable situations, women and children, persons with disabilities and older persons should also be considered.

ICT coverage is another way of being connected and recent technological advances enable a city to be better connected through its access to ICTs as well.

Length of roads according to road type

Source - Urban Council, Mannar

A total of 167 km of roads are found in the area under the jurisdiction of the Mannar Urban Council. They include Class A - 18KM, Class B - 12KM and Class C - 137KM.

Economy

Cities are the primary drivers of economic development, therefore, Sri Lanka’s cities have a decisive role to play in driving the economy forward by catalysing high value-added economic activities, as the country strives to achieve upper middle-income country status.

According the latest Word Cities report, 80 per cent of global GDP is created by cities, despite their accounting for less than 60 per cent of the world’s population (UN-Habitat, 2016).

The Government of Sri Lanka recognizes the role of urban economy in shaping the future of the country. In this respect, Vision 2025 and Public Investment Programme (PIP) 2017-2020 lays out the urban policy priority actions: to promote western region as economic hub of the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, and to promote strategic city development to secondary urban spaces as provincial economic hubs. 

It is also interesting to see how competitive a city is, taking into account current and potential roles of governments, businesses and the private sector in the economic development of the city and urban settlements, best use of human capital,  and labour force participation, and existing skills and the job market etc. within demarcated territory. 

Annual Revenue and Expenditure

Invasion of Indian Fisherman

Source - Department of fisheries and aquatic resources, Mannar district office, 2017

Poaching of the Indian Fishermen was highly dominant in the Sri Lankan sea territory near Mannar Island. They able to catch more fish within short time period by using modern equipment and technology which local fishermen didn’t have that. Therefore, exploitation of local marine resource and income of local people affected to the local economy. Graph shows above the details of Indian fishermen arrested within Mannar Island by the Navy of Sri Lanka in the past years.

Urban Governance

Urban governance can be simplified as “how government (local, regional and national) and stakeholders decide on planning, financing and managing urban areas”. It involves a continuous process of negotiation and contestation over allocation of social and material resources and political power.

This section provide a snapshot of the emergent contours of urban governance in Sri Lanka, focusing on financial resilience, service provision and economic dynamism.

Information available here are collected and calculated considering secondary data sets, ground level surveys as well as stakeholder discussions. The city governance index has taken many a factor into consideration and provides a valuable way of assessing our cities and how they rank from a governance perspective.

Distribution of Local Authorities (by Province)

Source - Statistical Hand Book 2019 Divisional Secretariat Mannar

There are one Urban Council and four Pradeshiya Sabhas in Mannar District.

Administrative Divisions

Source - Land Use Policy Planning Department

Administratively this district is divided into five Divisional Secretary's Divisions namely MannarTown, Nanattan, Musali, Manthai West, and Madhu and each headed by a Divisional Secretary. There are four Pradeshiya Sabhas and one Urban Council in Mannar District. Predesiya Sabhas are Mannar, Nanattan, Musali, and Manthai West and Mannar Town is upgraded as an Urban Council. The district consists of 153 Grama Niladhai divisions and 587 villages.

Housing

An important function of Sri Lanka’s cities is to provide housing for the diversity of residents that support urban life. Sri Lankan early urban settlement legacy – histories, patterns, trends including land use and housing and the development challenges that come along with it have shaped the nature of our cities.

The share of housing as a proportion of built-up area across the different cities was considered, and numerous factors affect the figure. e.g. Anuradhapura, has restrictions on residential developments because of its cultural, historical and touristic importance, other MCs include significant social and economic land use, operating as a hub to surrounding suburbs and rural areas with large residential populations.

Housing policy challenges that are encountered by the city administrators relate to tenure systems, the supply of affordable, high quality housing, and difficulties accessing housing finance. 

Types of housing

Source - Statistical Hand Book - 2019, Mannar Town

An important function of Sri Lanka’s cities is to provide housing for the diversity of residents that support urban life. The share of housing as a proportion of built-up area across the different cities was considered. Housing policy challenges that are encountered by the city administrators relate to tenure systems, the supply of affordable, high quality housing, and difficulties accessing housing finance.

Number of families and Houses

Source - Statistical Hand Book 2019 District Secretariat, Mannar

There are 7097 families and 6091 houses in urban council Mannar area.

Housing Classification

Source - Statistical Hand Book 2019 District Secretariat, Mannar

The graph indicate that in Mannar Urban council almost 71.31 per cent of the houses were permanent in 2018.

Status of resettlement

Source - Statistical Hand Book (District Secretariat) 2019

The situation regarding resettlement at the level of Mannar Divisional Secretariat is given here separately as the number registered and the number of families actually resettled and the total number of people. Download the data file for more information.

Download data file here

Municipal Services

Municipal services is one of the key tasks an urban centre carries out fto ensure a functional living condition for its citizens.

The access to municipal services and the quality of their provision strongly influence the social, economic and environmental performance of a city as well as urban development.

Urban centres provide key services that underpin Sri Lanka’s socioeconomic development. Cities provide key government administration functions, such as vehicle registration services, access to social protection schemes, and a range of additional services (explored in detail in Chapter 9, urban governance in the SoSLC Report). Urban centres provide residents with health and education services: providing equitable access to quality healthcare and education. They also include services to facilitate social recreational activities and promote community cohesion, such as libraries, community centres and sports facilities. Ensuring quality services is a crucial component in securing an urban future for all Sri Lankans. 

Water Consumers

Source - National Water Supply & Drainage Board, Mannar

The National Water Supply and Drainage Board has provided water connection to about 7737 houses and 205 shops in the area under the Mannar City Council up to 2019.In earlier days, the residents in the city had to depend on groundwater for their day-to-day needs. Nevertheless, groundwater often was not suitable for drinking purpose due to the saltiness. Consequently, the city had been facing difficulties with the access to drinking water. To overcome this challenge, a pipe born water supply scheme was established in the city and is being operated by National Water Supply and Drainage Board. Three water supply sources are available at present in Mannar Island namely, Murunkan water supply scheme (15,000 m3/day), Keeri well water (2250 m3/day) and ground water within Pesalai PS area (UDA, 2019).

Number of religious places by religion

Source - Statistical Hand Book 2019 Urban Council, Mannar

If we take 100% of the places of worship in Mannar Urban council, 2.38% of them are Buddhist temples, 52.38% are Christian churches, 16.67% are Islamic Masjids and 28.57% are Hindu temples.

Solid Waste Generation and Collection

Source - IWMI Publication - Solid and Liquid Waste Management and Resource Recovery in Sri Lanka: A 20 city analysis

Mannar Urban Council is responsible for collecting MSW and performs these responsibilities with limited resources. The UC has a fleet of vehicles that collect SW from households, commercial places and market on a regular basis. Given the limited amount of resources available in terms of vehicles and labor, and limited access to some localities (difficulties to drive through the by-roads); waste collection in certain areas is only conducted twice a week. Out of the total waste; nearly 68% produced by the residential activity and 4% produced by industrial sector and 28% produced by commercial sector. (UDA, 2019). Composition of the collected waste consists of 33% of biodegradable waste (short term 25% and long term 9%) which is much lower compared to the national average (often more than 50%).

Facilities available for the Solid Waste Management

Source - IWMI Publication - Solid and Liquid Waste Management and Resource Recovery in Sri Lanka: A 20 city analysis

Currently, waste segregation is not practiced in Mannar and as a result, large quantities of waste collected by UC are mixed waste. With the financial support provided through the Pilisaru project of CEA and National Solid Waste Management Support Center (NSWMSC) of Ministry of Local Government and Provincial Councils (MOLGPC) a small-scale compost plant has been established in the UC area. The LA also owns a plastic recycling facility, which is located within the same premises. The laborers separate the plastics, iron and glass from the waste manually and sell them to vendors. The remaining waste ends up being openly dumped in multiple locations around Mannar town. At present there are three places used for dumping purpose, which are located at UC and PS area covering 8 acres land.

Download data file here

Environment

A city needs to have an environment that is habitable and conducive with appropriate spaces for people who use the city, while also being resilient in the face of increasing climate risk.

Aspects such as a cities’ air and water quality, quality of the built environment as well as the aesthetic and historic aspects in the city are things we need to look at. However, in the light of increasing disaster risk, managing climate change impact in the light of current urbanisation patterns becomes a key concern, and thus land use planning in a city needs to take this into account.

SDG targets 11.4 (safeguarding cultural and natural heritage) and 11.5 (reducing impacts of disasters, especially floods), 11.6 (air quality and waste) and  11.7 (safe, open and green spaces for all groups) all emphasize that for a city to be sustainable, these aspects need to be considered.

Monthly Average Rainfall and Temperature

Source - Statistical Hand Book 2019 Divisional Secretariat Mannar

Mannar District is located in the dry zone of the country and less rains are occurring in southwest monsoon period in the area. Considering the flood records in past few years, 2019 is the only year where there is no recorded flood situation according to DMC. As it is clear in the graph here, in 2019, the number of days rained is very low but the rainfall intensity is high. This situation is tallying with the recorded high flood situation in Mannar in 2019. The graph also visualize a five year gap in between similar situations.

Flood Data

Source - Statistical Hand Book 2019 District Secretariat, Mannar

Mannar District has been continuously affected by floods. According to the records in 2018 affected 28 families and 91 people.

Rainfall and Rainy Days

Source - Statistical Hand Book 2019 Divisional Secretariat Mannar

Here is the change in the annual values of rainfall from 2015 to 2017. According to the Mannar Observatory station, rainfall in the area is calculated separately for each month and more information can be downloaded from the following detailed statistics.

Annual average air temperature at observation stations

Source - Department of Meteorology

Here is the change in the annual values of air temprature from 2009 to 2013. According to the Mannar Observatory station, air temprature in the area is calculated separately for each month and more information can be downloaded from the following detailed statistics.

Download data file here

Health

Health conditions (mortality, morbidity, disability) depend not just on standards of living, but on the actual performance of health systems themselves.

Reported number of Dengue Cases

Source - Medical Officer of Health, Mannar

Details of dengue cases identified in the area under the Mannar Urban Council during the year 2019 are given on a monthly basis.

Thematic maps

 

Mannar Urban Council area: 

Mannar Urban Council covers an area of 1411.26 hectares. (Data Source:Survey Department)

Download Map Here                           Download Data Layer Here

 

Distribution of Grama Niladhari Divisions in Mannar UC: 

Includes detailed information related to its 15 Grama Niladhari Divisions. (Data Source:Survey Department)

Download Map Here                           Download Data Layer Here

 

Road Map of Mannar Urban Council:

The road map for Mannar Urban Council has more information with road names. This information has been updated in 2020.(Data Source _ Openstreetmap)

Download Map Here                           Download Data Layer Here

 

Map of Distribution of Grama Niladhari Divisions in Mannar District:
The ethnic / sex / age composition in the Mannar District, detailed for each of its 152 Grama Niladhari Divisions. (Data Source: Survey Department)

Download Map Here                         Download Data Layer Here    

 

Abandoned Paddy Lands Under Rainfed Catagory:

It includes details of abandoned paddy lands in this area, which has a predominantly agricultural economy. (Data Source: Land Use Policy Planning Department)

    

 

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Legends

 

Proper management of land, a scarce resource, can bring about many benefits. This is of great importance especially in urban areas.

 

It is timely to figure out how land is allocated and being used for what purpose in our cities today. In order to create well planned cities with a futuristic vision, having a better understanding of current land use is imperative.

 

Land use maps are categorized into 36 sub-categories under two types – built-up and non built-up. The extent of land in each of these sub categories are indicated below.

 

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Built-Up
Total
Built-Up
7 (ha)
  • Low Rise
    • 1
  • Retail
    • 1
  • Factory
    • 1
  • Airport
    • 1
  • Playground
    • 1
    Cemetery
    • 1
    • 1
Non-Built-Up
Total
Non-Built-Up
8 (ha)
    • 1
    • 1
    • 1
    • 1
    • 1
    • 1
    • 1
    • 1

 

In all of the cities it can be identified that the higher densities are concentrated in the city centres and the expansion is taken place along the roads. The expansion pattern is shaped by the geography of the surrounding area.

 

The selection of the area for the urban expansion analysis was followed by several preliminary studies. Initially, the urban index values which was identified using the remote sensing information were studied in the respective municipal areas including a fringe area.
Before selecting interested area for the expansion analysis it should consider following facts
- Municipal boundary
- At least 2-3 km buffer around Municipal boundary
- Rough boundary where the physical urban character disappearing

 

In the remote sensing discipline, the values higher than 0 represent the built-up areas.The boundary for the fringe area was identified by getting the extent of urban expansion as well as a fine boundary where the high-density expansion become insignificant. The identified boundaries were projected on to the latest satellite images to assure the identified urban index values are in line with the existing building densities.

 

 

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Urban expansion statistics
Mannar Urban Council ( km 2 )
Overall Growth rate 1995 - 2017 %
Urban change 1995 - 2017
TOTAL AOI 0