Demography
Population
1,143,000
ADMINISTRATIVE AREA
888400 ha
Density
1.29 persons / ha

A city is a large human settlement. People are the main driving force in a city. The dynamism of a city is dependent  on people and their behaviour. A preliminary understanding of the composition and diverse capabilities of the populations in a city should be the key to a successful urban study.

Predictions made by identifying demographic and composition patterns of the population within the existing physical boundary will create a well-planned livable  city.
 
 
 
 
 

 

Population (According to the Census Year)

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Around 5% of the Sri Lankan population lived in Northern Province. The total population of the Northern Province is 1.246 million. 49% of the population are living in Jaffna district and only 51% of the population are belongs to other four districts. Further, 84.5% of the population are living in rural area and only 15.5% of the population are in urban area. Population density (or number of persons per square kilometer) of the province is 140.1 Km2. Population density of Jaffna district (600.48 Km2) is the highest population density of the Northern Province while the population density of Mullaitivu district (54.28 Km2) is the lowest population density of the Northern Province.

Gender Distribution

Source - Department of Census and Statistics (Population Estimate 2019)

Out of the total population of Northern Province, 550,000 (or 48.1%) are males and 593,000 (or 51.9%) are females. Above chart presents percentage distribution of population by sex. Sex ratio is defined as the number of males per 100 females. Estimated population 2019 reports that there are 94 males for every 100 females in Sri Lanka. According to the data, Mannar district’s sex ratio (102) is highest one and the Jaffna district’s sex ratio (89) is the lowest of the province.

Age Distribution

Source - Department of Census and Statistics (Census 2012))

Out of the total population of Northern Province, 201,948 (or 19%) are comprised under the age group of 10 – 19 years and 11,130 (or 1%) are comprised under the age group of over 80 years.

Gender distribution by age

Population by Ethnic Group

Education

Education has always been a significant element in societal development. The development of education facilities contributes substantially to the development in an urban area.

As a developing country it is crucial to address poverty in order to attain the development goals. Education plays a major role in poverty reduction. Presently, several global cities have been implementing the concept of smart city to improve the quality of life of the society, including in the field of education.

Good educational institutions and coverage enables a population to have decent livelihoods be they self employed or part of the workforce. Understanding how a city provides primary, secondary and tertiary eductional as well as skill development through vocational centres could provide some pointers to how well a city is doing or where it needs to develop further.

Computer Literacy Rate

Source - Computer Literacy Statistics – 2019 (Annual) Department of Census and Statistics

The Computer Literacy Rate of the Country in 2016, 2017, 2018 & 2019 was respectively 27.6%, 28.6%, 29.0% & 30.8%. However, the Computer Literacy Rate for all five districts in the Northern Province was less than Country’s Computer Literacy Rate in these years.

Percentage of computer owned households

Source - Computer Literacy Statistics – 2019 (Annual) Department of Census and Statistics

The chart illustrates the Percentage of computer owned households in Northern Province from 2016 to 2019. The Percentage of desktop computer owned households increased as 7.2% in 2017 from 6.5% in 2016. Then this percentage slightly decreased in the following years, as 6.0% in 2018 & 5.6% in 2019. Likewise, the percentage of desktop or laptop computer owned households increased as 18.7% in 2017 from 16.7% in 2016. Then this percentage slightly decreased in the following years, as 18.5% in 2018 & 16.2% in 2019.

GCE (O/L) Examination - Performance of School Candidates

Transport

Connectivity is central to key GoSL strategic aims: to promote economic growth, and to rebalance growth across the country’s 9 provinces. Higher the connectivity to any city, better is the urban growth in that city. 

Detailed information on key transport aspects including bus and rail transport, freight route maps, airports and logistic systems are aspects that should be considered for a city to be properly interconnected within the bigger system. One of the SDG targets 11.2 is about access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems, road safety, public transport, and if we are to move towards being sustainble, these need to be considered in tranpsort planning. Further, the needs of people in vulnerable situations, women and children, persons with disabilities and older persons should also be considered.

ICT coverage is another way of being connected and recent technological advances enable a city to be better connected through its access to ICTs as well.

Motor Vehicles by Province

Source - Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka, 2019 Central Bank of Sri Lanka & Divisional Secretariats

The above chart describes the information regarding the motor vehicles by Northern Province in 2016, 2017 & 2018. Here, motor vehicles refer motor vehicles with valid revenue licenses. Omnibuses are including buses owned by SLTB and private buses with route permits. Private coaches are including other private buses and coaches without route permits. From 2016 to 2018, the total number of vehicles by Northern Province has increased gradually.

Vehicle Ownership

Source - Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2016, Department of Census and Statistics

The above donut chart shows the percentage of vehicle ownership in Northern Province in 2016. In 2016, Northern Province has the highest percentage (72.8%) of Bicycle owners among all nine provinces in Sri Lanka, while the percentage of Bicycle owners in Sri Lanka in 2016 was 30.1%. In 2016, Northern Province has the lowest percentage (0.9%) of Buses / Lorries owners in Sri Lanka while percentage of Buses / Lorries owners in Sri Lanka in 2016 was 2.8%

Accident statistics in Police Divisions (Number of fatal casualties)

Source - Sri Lanka Police Department

The Number of fatal casualties are increased in number in year 2015 according to the records. It show a reduction in year 2016.

Download data file here

Economy

Cities are the primary drivers of economic development, therefore, Sri Lanka’s cities have a decisive role to play in driving the economy forward by catalysing high value-added economic activities, as the country strives to achieve upper middle-income country status.

According the latest Word Cities report, 80 per cent of global GDP is created by cities, despite their accounting for less than 60 per cent of the world’s population (UN-Habitat, 2016).

The Government of Sri Lanka recognizes the role of urban economy in shaping the future of the country. In this respect, Vision 2025 and Public Investment Programme (PIP) 2017-2020 lays out the urban policy priority actions: to promote western region as economic hub of the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, and to promote strategic city development to secondary urban spaces as provincial economic hubs. 

It is also interesting to see how competitive a city is, taking into account current and potential roles of governments, businesses and the private sector in the economic development of the city and urban settlements, best use of human capital,  and labour force participation, and existing skills and the job market etc. within demarcated territory. 

Departures for Foreign Employment by Province

Source - Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka, 2019 Central Bank of Sri Lanka & Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment

Departures from Northern Province for Foreign Employment has slightly increased from 2011 to 2014. Then it has decreased as 8945 in 2015 from 12624 in 2014. In 2016, it has increased by 585 and recorded as 9530. From 2016 to 2018, it has slightly decreased and recorded as 6781 in 2018. However, throughout the all years from 2011 to 2018, the percentage of male departures was higher than the percentage of female departures.

Revenue and Expenditure of Provincial Council

Source - Source - Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka, 2019 Central Bank of Sri Lanka & Ministry of Local Government & Provincial Councils

The above graph illustrates the revenue and expenditure summary of the Northern Provincial Council from 2016 to 2018. Here, under receipts, the Grant from the Central Govt. and Revenue of the council are included. Likewise, under expenditure, the Recurrent (including Local Govt.) and Capital Expenditure are included. From 2016 to 2018, the receipts and expenditure of the Northern Provincial Council has slightly increased.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at Current Market Prices - Rs. in Million

Source - Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka, 2019 Central Bank of Sri Lanka

While the Sri Lanka’s GDP at current market prices was 11,996,083 million in 2016, the GDP contribution of the Northern Province was 541,431 million (4.51%). In 2017, the Sri Lanka’s GDP at current market prices was 13,418,287 million, the GDP contribution of the Northern Province was 605,331 million (4.51%). The percentage of the Northern Province’s contribution to GDP was the same in 2016 & 2017.

GDP by Sector

Source - Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka, 2019 Central Bank of Sri Lanka

The GDP contribution by sector values shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods. Unfortunately, due to the Northern Provincial people’s lives were severely devastated by internal conflict in several ways such as loss of lives, multiple displacements, loss of properties and deprivation from economic activities, unemployment, poverty and so, Northern province is the lowest contributor to national GDP according to statistics department of central bank. However, the contribution from Northern province slightly increased from 3.6% in 2012 to 4.5% in 2017.

Per Capita GDP

Source - Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka, 2019 Central Bank of Sri Lanka

The Per Capita GDP of the Northern Province in 2016 was Rs. 489,097 million which was around 13.5% less than Country’s Per Capita GDP. In 2017, The Per Capita GDP of the Northern Province was Rs. 540,957 million which was again around 13.5% less than Country’s Per Capita GDP in that year.

Urban Governance

Urban governance can be simplified as “how government (local, regional and national) and stakeholders decide on planning, financing and managing urban areas”. It involves a continuous process of negotiation and contestation over allocation of social and material resources and political power.

This section provide a snapshot of the emergent contours of urban governance in Sri Lanka, focusing on financial resilience, service provision and economic dynamism.

Information available here are collected and calculated considering secondary data sets, ground level surveys as well as stakeholder discussions. The city governance index has taken many a factor into consideration and provides a valuable way of assessing our cities and how they rank from a governance perspective.

Local Authorities in Northern Province

Source - Department of Local Government, Northern Province

There are 34 local authorities (1 Municipal Council, 05 Urban Councils and 28 Pradeshiya Sabhhas) in Northern Province.

Housing

An important function of Sri Lanka’s cities is to provide housing for the diversity of residents that support urban life. Sri Lankan early urban settlement legacy – histories, patterns, trends including land use and housing and the development challenges that come along with it have shaped the nature of our cities.

The share of housing as a proportion of built-up area across the different cities was considered, and numerous factors affect the figure. e.g. Anuradhapura, has restrictions on residential developments because of its cultural, historical and touristic importance, other MCs include significant social and economic land use, operating as a hub to surrounding suburbs and rural areas with large residential populations.

Housing policy challenges that are encountered by the city administrators relate to tenure systems, the supply of affordable, high quality housing, and difficulties accessing housing finance. 

Housing Conditions

Source - Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2016, Department of Census and Statistics

The above graph shows the summary of information regarding the housing conditions in Northern Province in 2016. Here, the permanent wall type refers brick, cabok, cement block & pressed soil block. Semi-permanent wall type refers plank/metal sheet, cadjan/palmyrah & other. Permanent floor type refers cement, terrazzo/tile & concrete. Semi-permanent floor type refers mud, wood, sand & other. Permanent roof type refers tile, asbestos & concrete. Semi-permanent roof type refers takaran, cadjan/palmyrah & other. In 2016, Northern Province has the highest percentage of (6.5%) semi permanent wall type houses while the percentage of this for Sri Lanka was 4.5%.

Municipal Services

Municipal services is one of the key tasks an urban centre carries out fto ensure a functional living condition for its citizens.

The access to municipal services and the quality of their provision strongly influence the social, economic and environmental performance of a city as well as urban development.

Urban centres provide key services that underpin Sri Lanka’s socioeconomic development. Cities provide key government administration functions, such as vehicle registration services, access to social protection schemes, and a range of additional services (explored in detail in Chapter 9, urban governance in the SoSLC Report). Urban centres provide residents with health and education services: providing equitable access to quality healthcare and education. They also include services to facilitate social recreational activities and promote community cohesion, such as libraries, community centres and sports facilities. Ensuring quality services is a crucial component in securing an urban future for all Sri Lankans. 

Garbage Disposal (in %)

Source - Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2016, Department of Census and Statistics

The above pie chart illustrates the information regarding the garbage disposal in Northern Province in 2016. In 2016, more than 50% of the garbage disposed through either buried or burned. Only 0.2% of the garbage disposed through thrown away outside premises.

Environment

A city needs to have an environment that is habitable and conducive with appropriate spaces for people who use the city, while also being resilient in the face of increasing climate risk.

Aspects such as a cities’ air and water quality, quality of the built environment as well as the aesthetic and historic aspects in the city are things we need to look at. However, in the light of increasing disaster risk, managing climate change impact in the light of current urbanisation patterns becomes a key concern, and thus land use planning in a city needs to take this into account.

SDG targets 11.4 (safeguarding cultural and natural heritage) and 11.5 (reducing impacts of disasters, especially floods), 11.6 (air quality and waste) and  11.7 (safe, open and green spaces for all groups) all emphasize that for a city to be sustainable, these aspects need to be considered.

Land Use Pattern

Source - District Secretariats, NP

The pie chart demonstrates the land use pattern of the Northern Province in 2018. According to the data received from the respective District Secretariats, the forest land was around 42%, Urban & Other Land was around 27%, Agricultural Land was around 22% and Range Land was around 9% in 2018.

Monthly Rainfall by District (in mm) - 2018

Source - Department of Meteorology, Colombo

The Northern Province tends to be hot and dry in the dry season (February to September), and moderately cool and wet in the wet seasons (October to January). The Province’s climate is the tropical kind and therefore during monsoons there is always the chance of a deluge

Health

Health conditions (mortality, morbidity, disability) depend not just on standards of living, but on the actual performance of health systems themselves.

Crude Birth Rate

Crude Death Rate

Thematic maps

 

Discrits in Nothern Province:

5 districts which are available in NP mentioned here (Data Source: Survey Department)

Download Map Here       Download data layer Here

 

Map of Distribution of Grama Niladhari Divisions in Kilinochchi District:
The ethnic / sex / age composition in the Kilinochchi District, detailed for each of its 95 Grama Niladhari Divisions. (Data Source: Survey Department)

Download Map Here                      Download Data Layer Here   

 

Flood Northern Province Nov / Dec 2008:

WESSA or “VAE for Sri Lanka: a Satellite-based flood Analysis” supports the World Bank and Sri Lankan authorities through satellite based EO products as an input for the WB “Climate Resilient Program”. WESSA is a project of nazka mapps and RSS, carried out in the frame of VAE programme and funded by the European Space Agency. The project has facilitated by GFDRR on request of Disaster Management Centre. 4 historical flood events (May 2010, Dec 2007, Nov/Dec 2008 & May 2003)

Download Map Here        Download Data Layer Here

 

Helipads in Northern Province:

It contains information about all the helipads belonging to Sri Lanka with name and their exact location is further indicated using latitude and longitude and can be obtained by downloading the spatial data available here.(Data Source_Riskinfo)

Download Map Here       Download Data Layer Here

 

River Basins in NP:

It contains information about all the River Basins. Name of Basin, Catchment, Name of Basin Catchment . Water Management in a Cascade Irrigation System in Sri Lanka and those data can be obtained by downloading the spatial data available here.(Data Source_Riskinfo)

Download Map Here      Download Data Layer Here

 

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Legends

 

Proper management of land, a scarce resource, can bring about many benefits. This is of great importance especially in urban areas.

 

It is timely to figure out how land is allocated and being used for what purpose in our cities today. In order to create well planned cities with a futuristic vision, having a better understanding of current land use is imperative.

 

Land use maps are categorized into 36 sub-categories under two types – built-up and non built-up. The extent of land in each of these sub categories are indicated below.

 

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Built-Up
Total
Built-Up
(ha)
Non-Built-Up
Total
Non-Built-Up
(ha)

 

Proper management of land, a scarce resource, can bring about many benefits. This is of great importance especially in urban areas.

 

It is timely to figure out how land is allocated and being used for what purpose in our cities today. In order to create well planned cities with a futuristic vision, having a better understanding of current land use is imperative.

 

Land use maps are categorized into 36 sub-categories under two types – built-up and non built-up. The extent of land in each of these sub categories are indicated below.

 

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Urban expansion statistics
Northern Province ( km 2 )
Overall Growth rate 1995 - 2017 %
Urban change 1995 - 2017
TOTAL AOI 0