1,379 ha
59 persons / ha

A city is a large human settlement. People are the main driving force in a city. The dynamism of a city is dependent  on people and their behaviour. A preliminary understanding of the composition and diverse capabilities of the populations in a city should be the key to a successful urban study.

Predictions made by identifying demographic and composition patterns of the population within the existing physical boundary will create a well-planned livable  city.


Language competency

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

This graph show the ethnic groups and their language ability in 2012.

Download data file here

Sex Ratio (Female per every 100 Males) by age group

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Sex ratio is calculated using the percentage of proportion of males relative to females in a population. The graph indicates that more females than males in all age group except less than 15.

Download data file here

Female Headed households and Male Headed Households with National Average

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

This describes how domestic leadership is divided into genders. Number of Male headed households are higher than the number of Female headed households in the municipal limit.

Download data file here

Composition of the Ethnic Profile - by Urban Area, District and Province

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Trincomalee’s ethnic city makeup comprises a majority of 69.1 per cent Tamil, followed by 17.6 per cent Sinhalese, 12.4 per cent Sri Lanka Moor, and 0.9 per cent Other groups.

Population Growth rate

Source - JICA

The graph elaborates the population growth in the area

Reason for migration

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Employment is considered as the main reason for male population migration in to the city, and the females are migrated in the city is due to marriages and also considering employments as well as accompanying with a family member.

Download data file here

Gender distribution by age

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Out of the total population within the Trincomalee Municipal Council limits, 47.96% are male and 52.04% are female. The proportion of the total population divided by age is 24.56% for children under 15, 26.24%, for those aged 15 - 29, 38.05% for those aged 30-59 and 11.13% for the elderly population over 60 year.

Download data file here

Migration to city limits by years of residents

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The total male resident population in the Trincomalee Municipal Council area is 23188, the total female resident population is 25163 out of which the total male migrant population is 5475 and the total female migrant population is 5834. According to that the amount of female immigrants are comparatively higher than the male immigrants according to the data.

Download data file here


Education has always been a significant element in societal development. The development of education facilities contributes substantially to the development in an urban area.

As a developing country it is crucial to address poverty in order to attain the development goals. Education plays a major role in poverty reduction. Presently, several global cities have been implementing the concept of smart city to improve the quality of life of the society, including in the field of education.

Good educational institutions and coverage enables a population to have decent livelihoods be they self employed or part of the workforce. Understanding how a city provides primary, secondary and tertiary eductional as well as skill development through vocational centres could provide some pointers to how well a city is doing or where it needs to develop further.

Category of Educational attainment by Gender( aged 3 - 24 years )

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

This graph provides the details of educational categories by gender in 2012

Highest Level of Education achieved by Gender

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

This graph shows that there is a higher proportion of males that achieve a higher degree and above despite more females graduating from GCE (O/L) and GCE (A/L).

Computer literacy - ( Population aged 10 years and above )

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

It shows the computer literacy of persons between the ages of 10 and 40 in terms of gender and it explains that 43% of men and 35% of women in the Trincomalee Urban Council are computer literate.

Download data file here


Connectivity is central to key GoSL strategic aims: to promote economic growth, and to rebalance growth across the country’s 9 provinces. Higher the connectivity to any city, better is the urban growth in that city. 

Detailed information on key transport aspects including bus and rail transport, freight route maps, airports and logistic systems are aspects that should be considered for a city to be properly interconnected within the bigger system. One of the SDG targets 11.2 is about access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems, road safety, public transport, and if we are to move towards being sustainble, these need to be considered in tranpsort planning. Further, the needs of people in vulnerable situations, women and children, persons with disabilities and older persons should also be considered.

ICT coverage is another way of being connected and recent technological advances enable a city to be better connected through its access to ICTs as well.

Accident statistics in Police Divisions (Number of fatal casualties)

Source - Sri Lanka Police Department

This graph shows fatal casualties within the last 3 years.

Download data file here

Number of Vehicles and Passengers by Mode - One Way, 24 Hours

Source - SOSLC Project

This graph shows that modal share vehicles and along with passengers entering into the city in 2012

Number of railway passengers annually

Source - Sri Lanka Railways

Number of railway passengers are decreasing from 2014 to 2016 according to the data.

Hourly traffic flow (in day time )

Source - SOSLC Project

Between 7 am to 9 am is the busiest traffic period in the Trincomalee UC area with peak reached at 5 p.m due to returning home of work commuting traffic.

Modal share of vehicles entering in Municipal Council from 06 am to 06 pm (Percent)

Source - SOSLC Project

This highest percentage of vehicles entering into the Trincomalee UC area between 6 am to 6 pm were private vehicles such as motorcycles/car/van/jeeps totaling around 87 per cent of the modal share but Route bus only has 1 per cent share of vehicles and 6 per cent of bicycles entering into the city.

Railway passengers coming into/from city center

Source - Sri Lanka Railways

This data includes island wide station record survey of ordinary records and season ticket survey of Railway department (March ,2016)

Pedestrian crossing

Source - SOSLC Project

Behaviors of the Pedestrians in the city is explained in the data.


Cities are the primary drivers of economic development, therefore, Sri Lanka’s cities have a decisive role to play in driving the economy forward by catalysing high value-added economic activities, as the country strives to achieve upper middle-income country status.

According the latest Word Cities report, 80 per cent of global GDP is created by cities, despite their accounting for less than 60 per cent of the world’s population (UN-Habitat, 2016).

The Government of Sri Lanka recognizes the role of urban economy in shaping the future of the country. In this respect, Vision 2025 and Public Investment Programme (PIP) 2017-2020 lays out the urban policy priority actions: to promote western region as economic hub of the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, and to promote strategic city development to secondary urban spaces as provincial economic hubs. 

It is also interesting to see how competitive a city is, taking into account current and potential roles of governments, businesses and the private sector in the economic development of the city and urban settlements, best use of human capital,  and labour force participation, and existing skills and the job market etc. within demarcated territory. 

Estimated City Competitiveness Index (CCI)

Source - SOSLC Project

Trincomalee is ranked as the least on the CCI.

Estimated Gross domestic product per capita

Source - Central Bank Annual report 2017

This graph indicates the gradual rise in per capita GDP in Trincomalee UC.

Annual Revenue and Expenditure

Source - Trincomalee Urban Council

The data elaborates the annual revenue and expenditure of the city

Urban Governance

Urban governance can be simplified as “how government (local, regional and national) and stakeholders decide on planning, financing and managing urban areas”. It involves a continuous process of negotiation and contestation over allocation of social and material resources and political power.

This section provide a snapshot of the emergent contours of urban governance in Sri Lanka, focusing on financial resilience, service provision and economic dynamism.

Information available here are collected and calculated considering secondary data sets, ground level surveys as well as stakeholder discussions. The city governance index has taken many a factor into consideration and provides a valuable way of assessing our cities and how they rank from a governance perspective.

City Governance Index

Source - SOSLC Project

This data is visualizing the city competitiveness of the Trincomalee UC. It is noted that most of all the areas in the economy of the city needs proper management in order to achieve development and sustainability.

Distribution of Local Authorities (by Province)

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

In Sri Lanka the LAs are divided into three types according to its population and size: Municipal Councils (MC, 23) which corresponds to the city, Urban Councils (UC, 41) which corresponds to the town, and Pradeshiya Sabha (PS, 271) which corresponds to the village. They are responsible for providing a variety of local public services including roads, sanitation, drains, waste collection, housing, libraries, public parks and recreational facilities. This pie chart shows the distribution of LAs by province in particular local authority belongs. Eastern Province include 3 MC’s, 5 UC and 37 PS’s. Trincomalee is the provincial capital city of Eastern province.


An important function of Sri Lanka’s cities is to provide housing for the diversity of residents that support urban life. Sri Lankan early urban settlement legacy – histories, patterns, trends including land use and housing and the development challenges that come along with it have shaped the nature of our cities.

The share of housing as a proportion of built-up area across the different cities was considered, and numerous factors affect the figure. e.g. Anuradhapura, has restrictions on residential developments because of its cultural, historical and touristic importance, other MCs include significant social and economic land use, operating as a hub to surrounding suburbs and rural areas with large residential populations.

Housing policy challenges that are encountered by the city administrators relate to tenure systems, the supply of affordable, high quality housing, and difficulties accessing housing finance. 

Types of housing unit

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The graph indicates the typology of housing in the Trincomalee UC area. The majority of housing (around 94 per cent) comprises single story and two story houses.

Types of housing

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Number of permanent houses in the are is high. There are few houses in the status of improvised.

Municipal Services

Municipal services is one of the key tasks an urban centre carries out fto ensure a functional living condition for its citizens.

The access to municipal services and the quality of their provision strongly influence the social, economic and environmental performance of a city as well as urban development.

Urban centres provide key services that underpin Sri Lanka’s socioeconomic development. Cities provide key government administration functions, such as vehicle registration services, access to social protection schemes, and a range of additional services (explored in detail in Chapter 9, urban governance in the SoSLC Report). Urban centres provide residents with health and education services: providing equitable access to quality healthcare and education. They also include services to facilitate social recreational activities and promote community cohesion, such as libraries, community centres and sports facilities. Ensuring quality services is a crucial component in securing an urban future for all Sri Lankans. 


Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Infrastructure services in the city is detailed in this data. Pipe borne water supply and coverage of sewerage pipes needs more development according to the data.

Solid waste composition

Source - JICA

The results of a waste composition survey conducted in 2010 in the Kanniya UC by the NSWMSC are quoted as the result of waste composition of the Trincomalee UC.

Solid waste collection and disposal (Per day)

Source - JICA

Majority of the solid waste generated in the city es recorded as collected. Rest of the other which is not collected are managed by the households by burning, barring and composting.


A city needs to have an environment that is habitable and conducive with appropriate spaces for people who use the city, while also being resilient in the face of increasing climate risk.

Aspects such as a cities’ air and water quality, quality of the built environment as well as the aesthetic and historic aspects in the city are things we need to look at. However, in the light of increasing disaster risk, managing climate change impact in the light of current urbanisation patterns becomes a key concern, and thus land use planning in a city needs to take this into account.

SDG targets 11.4 (safeguarding cultural and natural heritage) and 11.5 (reducing impacts of disasters, especially floods), 11.6 (air quality and waste) and  11.7 (safe, open and green spaces for all groups) all emphasize that for a city to be sustainable, these aspects need to be considered.

Monthly Average Rainfall and Temperature

Source - Department of Meteorology

Data is on Average rainfall and temperature in urban area. the graph further elaborate the patterns and correlation in between the values.

Flood Data

Source - Disaster Management Center

Trincomalee city area records flood in 2014 and in 2015. 2014 flood had reasoned to affect 2958 people. However, the urban area is frequently going under flash flood situations, in heavy rain periods in north eastern monsoon.

Annual average air temperature at observation stations

Source - Department of Meteorology

Here is the change in the annual values of air temprature from 2007 to 2013. According to the Trincomalee Observatory station, air temprature in the area is calculated separately for each month and more inforamation can be downloaded from the following detailed statistics.

Download data file here

Annual rainfall at observation station

Source - Department of Meteorology

Here is the change in the annual values of rainfall from 2008 to 2013. According to the Trincomalee Observatory station, rainfall in the area is calculated separately for each month and more information can be downloaded from the following detailed statistics.

Download data file here

Climate risk exposure(1974-2017)

Source - Disaster Management Center

This graph shows the climate risk exposure from 1974 to 2017.

Thematic maps



1. Trincomalee Urban Council area: 

Trincomalee Urban Council covers an area of 1,379 hectares. (Data Source _ Urban Development Authority)

 Download Map Here                           Download Data Layer Here


2. Map of Distribution of Grama Niladhari Divisions in Trincomalee Administrative Limits:     
The ethnic / sex / age composition in the Colombo Municipal Council area, detailed for each of its Grama Niladhari Divisions. (Data Source _ Department of Census and Statistics)

Download Map Here                       Download Data Layer Here


3. Road Map of Trincomalee UC:

The road map for Trincomalee UC has more information with name of roads, which can be accessed if downloaded. This information has been updated in 2019.(Data Source _ SoSLC Project)

 Download Map Here                         Download Data Layer Here

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Proper management of land, a scarce resource, can bring about many benefits. This is of great importance especially in urban areas.


It is timely to figure out how land is allocated and being used for what purpose in our cities today. In order to create well planned cities with a futuristic vision, having a better understanding of current land use is imperative.


Land use maps are categorized into 36 sub-categories under two types – built-up and non built-up. The extent of land in each of these sub categories are indicated below.


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826.04 (ha)
  • High Rise
    • 1.17
    Low Rise
    • 491.41
    • 0.36
    • 0.53
  • Retail
    • 49.27
    • 2.60
    Mixed Retail-Residential
    • 6.16
    • 1.65
  • Education
    • Other higher edu. 4.63
    • School 16.65
    • Hospital 5.75
    • Dispensary 0.50
    • 90.05
  • Factory
    • 5.60
  • Bus Terminus
    • 3.64
    Rail Terminus
    • 7.53
    • 0.30
    • 1.39
    • 17.45
    Rail Road
    • 45.45
  • Park/Square
    • 3.92
    • 37.17
    • 5.37
  • Religious
    • Temple/Shrine 17.98
    • Church 6.54
    • Mosque 0.62
    • 1.67
    • 0.68
489.96 (ha)
    • 29.16
    • 16.91
    • 298.97
    • 7.58
    • 27.77
    • 55.13
    • 54.44


Proper management of land, a scarce resource, can bring about many benefits. This is of great importance especially in urban areas.


It is timely to figure out how land is allocated and being used for what purpose in our cities today. In order to create well planned cities with a futuristic vision, having a better understanding of current land use is imperative.


Land use maps are categorized into 36 sub-categories under two types – built-up and non built-up. The extent of land in each of these sub categories are indicated below.


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Urban expansion statistics
Trincomalee Urban Council ( km 2 )
Overall Growth rate 1995 - 2017 5.48%
Urban change 1995 - 2017 4.13
TOTAL AOI 143.63
    • 1995
      • Total Municipality 13.79
      • Urban 1.59
      • Semi-Urban 3.93
      • Non-Built 7.39
      • Water 0.88
    • 2001
      • Total Municipality 13.8
      • Urban 2.31
      • Semi-Urban 4.02
      • Non-Built 6.59
      • Water 0.88
    • 2012
      • Total Municipality 13.8
      • Urban 3.9
      • Semi-Urban 4.32
      • Non-Built 4.7
      • Water 0.88
    • 2017
      • Total Municipality 13.79
      • Urban 4.92
      • Semi-Urban 4.58
      • Non-Built 3.41
      • Water 0.88
    • 1995
      • Total Fringe 129.85
      • Urban 0.91
      • Semi-Urban 6.96
      • Non-Built 52.08
      • Water 69.9
    • 2001
      • Total Fringe 129.85
      • Urban 1.16
      • Semi-Urban 8.98
      • Non-Built 49.81
      • Water 69.9
    • 2012
      • Total Fringe 129.85
      • Urban 2.1
      • Semi-Urban 10.98
      • Non-Built 46.87
      • Water 69.9
    • 2017
      • Total Fringe 129.84
      • Urban 3.16
      • Semi-Urban 12.01
      • Non-Built 44.77
      • Water 69.9