2248.96 ha
15.48 persons / ha

A city is a large human settlement. People are the main driving force in a city. The dynamism of a city is dependent  on people and their behaviour. A preliminary understanding of the composition and diverse capabilities of the populations in a city should be the key to a successful urban study.

Predictions made by identifying demographic and composition patterns of the population within the existing physical boundary will create a well-planned livable  city.


Migration to city limits by years of residents

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The above data belongs to Vavuniya district. According to that the amount of female inmigrants are comparatively higher than the male inmigrants

Gender Distribution

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Out of the total population within the Vavunia Urban Council limits, 49.1% are male and 50.9% are female.

Language competency

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Data showing the multinational language skills of ethnic group in 2012 in the Vavuna Urban Council.

Download data file here

Sex Ratio (Female per every 100 Males) by age group

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Sex ratio is calculated using the percentage of proportion of males relative to females in a population. The graph indicates that more females than males in age group of over 60. it is 127.74%.

Female Headed households and Male Headed Households with National Average

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The above data belongs to the Vavuniya district. Thus it can be observed that the number of male headed families is high. Here the averages of both males and females in Sri Lanka are shown separately

Composition of the Ethnic Profile - by Urban Area, District and Province

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

In the Vavuniya urban area, the majority are 84 percent Sri Lankan Tamils and the rest are 16 percent.

Reason for migration

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The above data belongs to Vavuniya district. Highest number of migrants are resettled after disparagement according to the data.Employment is considered as the one of the main reason for male population migration in to the city, and the females are migrated in the city is due to marriages and also considering employments as well as accompanying with a family member.

Gender distribution by age

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The highest population is in the 30-59 age group and the lowest population is in the 60s group. Also, the proportion of females in these two groups is slightly higher.


Education has always been a significant element in societal development. The development of education facilities contributes substantially to the development in an urban area.

As a developing country it is crucial to address poverty in order to attain the development goals. Education plays a major role in poverty reduction. Presently, several global cities have been implementing the concept of smart city to improve the quality of life of the society, including in the field of education.

Good educational institutions and coverage enables a population to have decent livelihoods be they self employed or part of the workforce. Understanding how a city provides primary, secondary and tertiary eductional as well as skill development through vocational centres could provide some pointers to how well a city is doing or where it needs to develop further.

Category of Educational attainment by Gender( aged 3 - 24 years )

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

About 60% of the total population between the ages of 3 and 24 attend school. Also about 25% do not have any formal education.

Highest Level of Education achieved by Gender

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

All the category, female students participated or achieved education is more than male in Vavuniya UC .

Computer literacy - ( Population aged 10 years and above )

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

It shows the computer literacy of persons between the ages of 10 and 40 in terms of gender and it explains that 29% of men and 30% of women in the Vavuniya Urban Council are computer literate.


Connectivity is central to key GoSL strategic aims: to promote economic growth, and to rebalance growth across the country’s 9 provinces. Higher the connectivity to any city, better is the urban growth in that city. 

Detailed information on key transport aspects including bus and rail transport, freight route maps, airports and logistic systems are aspects that should be considered for a city to be properly interconnected within the bigger system. One of the SDG targets 11.2 is about access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems, road safety, public transport, and if we are to move towards being sustainble, these need to be considered in tranpsort planning. Further, the needs of people in vulnerable situations, women and children, persons with disabilities and older persons should also be considered.

ICT coverage is another way of being connected and recent technological advances enable a city to be better connected through its access to ICTs as well.

Number of railway passangers annually

Source - Railway station - Vavuniya

Acoording to Vavunia railway station data it can observe an increase in the number of train passengers every year and the highest number of passengers was reported in 2016.


Cities are the primary drivers of economic development, therefore, Sri Lanka’s cities have a decisive role to play in driving the economy forward by catalysing high value-added economic activities, as the country strives to achieve upper middle-income country status.

According the latest Word Cities report, 80 per cent of global GDP is created by cities, despite their accounting for less than 60 per cent of the world’s population (UN-Habitat, 2016).

The Government of Sri Lanka recognizes the role of urban economy in shaping the future of the country. In this respect, Vision 2025 and Public Investment Programme (PIP) 2017-2020 lays out the urban policy priority actions: to promote western region as economic hub of the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, and to promote strategic city development to secondary urban spaces as provincial economic hubs. 

It is also interesting to see how competitive a city is, taking into account current and potential roles of governments, businesses and the private sector in the economic development of the city and urban settlements, best use of human capital,  and labour force participation, and existing skills and the job market etc. within demarcated territory. 

Annual Revenue and Expenditure

Source - Vavuniya Urban Council Final Account-2019

This includes information on the revenue and expenditure of the Vavuniya Municipal Council. For this, data for the year 2019 has been included.

Urban Governance

Urban governance can be simplified as “how government (local, regional and national) and stakeholders decide on planning, financing and managing urban areas”. It involves a continuous process of negotiation and contestation over allocation of social and material resources and political power.

This section provide a snapshot of the emergent contours of urban governance in Sri Lanka, focusing on financial resilience, service provision and economic dynamism.

Information available here are collected and calculated considering secondary data sets, ground level surveys as well as stakeholder discussions. The city governance index has taken many a factor into consideration and provides a valuable way of assessing our cities and how they rank from a governance perspective.

Distribution of Local Authorities (by Province)

Source - Statistical Hand Book 2019 Divisional Secretariat Vavuniya.

There is one Urban council and four Pradeshiya Sabhas in Vavuniya district


An important function of Sri Lanka’s cities is to provide housing for the diversity of residents that support urban life. Sri Lankan early urban settlement legacy – histories, patterns, trends including land use and housing and the development challenges that come along with it have shaped the nature of our cities.

The share of housing as a proportion of built-up area across the different cities was considered, and numerous factors affect the figure. e.g. Anuradhapura, has restrictions on residential developments because of its cultural, historical and touristic importance, other MCs include significant social and economic land use, operating as a hub to surrounding suburbs and rural areas with large residential populations.

Housing policy challenges that are encountered by the city administrators relate to tenure systems, the supply of affordable, high quality housing, and difficulties accessing housing finance. 

Types of housing unit

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The graph indicates the typology of housing in the Vavuniya UC. The majority of housing (around 95 per cent) comprises single story and two story houses.

Types of housing

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

The graph indicate that in Vavuniya Urban council (GN Division) almost 84.71 per cent of the houses were permanent .

Municipal Services

Municipal services is one of the key tasks an urban centre carries out fto ensure a functional living condition for its citizens.

The access to municipal services and the quality of their provision strongly influence the social, economic and environmental performance of a city as well as urban development.

Urban centres provide key services that underpin Sri Lanka’s socioeconomic development. Cities provide key government administration functions, such as vehicle registration services, access to social protection schemes, and a range of additional services (explored in detail in Chapter 9, urban governance in the SoSLC Report). Urban centres provide residents with health and education services: providing equitable access to quality healthcare and education. They also include services to facilitate social recreational activities and promote community cohesion, such as libraries, community centres and sports facilities. Ensuring quality services is a crucial component in securing an urban future for all Sri Lankans. 

Solid waste collection and disposal (Per day)

Source - Department of Census and Statistics

Almost 49.66 % of households were covered for garbage collection, around 45.06 per cent households burning their garbage

Solid Waste Generation and Collection

Source - IWMI Publication - Solid and Liquid Waste Management and Resource Recovery in Sri Lanka: A 20 city analysis

Solid waste in the town is the responsibility of Vavuniya Urban Council, and disposal is a problem that has become more acute as the population has expanded (ADB, 2012). However, the majority of the solid waste generated in the area appeared to be self-managed. The given resources for collection of solid waste is inadequate. it is affected the frequency of collection in different areas. Currently, source separation is not practiced in the area. The collected solid waste is disposed to the land in Pampaimadu; about 14 km from Vavuniya Town. Even though a small scale compost plant established in the UC, the practices appeared to be abandoned at present.


A city needs to have an environment that is habitable and conducive with appropriate spaces for people who use the city, while also being resilient in the face of increasing climate risk.

Aspects such as a cities’ air and water quality, quality of the built environment as well as the aesthetic and historic aspects in the city are things we need to look at. However, in the light of increasing disaster risk, managing climate change impact in the light of current urbanisation patterns becomes a key concern, and thus land use planning in a city needs to take this into account.

SDG targets 11.4 (safeguarding cultural and natural heritage) and 11.5 (reducing impacts of disasters, especially floods), 11.6 (air quality and waste) and  11.7 (safe, open and green spaces for all groups) all emphasize that for a city to be sustainable, these aspects need to be considered.

Monthly Average Rainfall and Temperature

Source - Department of Meteorology

Data is on Average rainfall and temperature in Vavuniya district. The graph further elaborate the patterns and correlation in between the values.

Annual average air temperature at observation stations

Source - Department of Meteorology

Here is the change in the annual values of air temprature from 2009 to 2013. According to the Vavuniya Observatory station, air temprature in the area is calculated separately for each month and more information can be downloaded from the following detailed statistics.

Download data file here

Thematic maps


Vavunia Urban Council area: 

Vavunia Urban Council covers an area of 2248.96 hectares. (Data Source _ Survey Department)

Download Map Here                        Download Data Layer Here   


Distribution of Grama Niladhari Divisions in Vavunia UC:

Includes detailed information related to its 12 Grama Niladhari Divisions. (Data Source: Survey Department)

Download Map Here                           Download Data Layer Here


Road Map of Vavuniya Urban Council:

The road map for Vavuniya Urban Council has more information with road names. This information has been updated in 2020.(Data Source _ Openstreetmap)

Download Map Here                           Download Data Layer Here

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Proper management of land, a scarce resource, can bring about many benefits. This is of great importance especially in urban areas.


It is timely to figure out how land is allocated and being used for what purpose in our cities today. In order to create well planned cities with a futuristic vision, having a better understanding of current land use is imperative.


Land use maps are categorized into 36 sub-categories under two types – built-up and non built-up. The extent of land in each of these sub categories are indicated below.


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1339.66 (ha)
  • Low Rise
    • 1285.14
    • 28.79
  • Factory
    • 9.19
  • Park/Square
    • 12.3
    • 1.29
    • 2.95
909.29 (ha)
    • 752.38
    • 149.86
    • 7.05


In all of the cities it can be identified that the higher densities are concentrated in the city centres and the expansion is taken place along the roads. The expansion pattern is shaped by the geography of the surrounding area.


The selection of the area for the urban expansion analysis was followed by several preliminary studies. Initially, the urban index values which was identified using the remote sensing information were studied in the respective municipal areas including a fringe area.
Before selecting interested area for the expansion analysis it should consider following facts
- Municipal boundary
- At least 2-3 km buffer around Municipal boundary
- Rough boundary where the physical urban character disappearing


In the remote sensing discipline, the values higher than 0 represent the built-up areas.The boundary for the fringe area was identified by getting the extent of urban expansion as well as a fine boundary where the high-density expansion become insignificant. The identified boundaries were projected on to the latest satellite images to assure the identified urban index values are in line with the existing building densities.



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Urban expansion statistics
Vavuniya Urban Council ( km 2 )
Overall Growth rate 1995 - 2017 %
Urban change 1995 - 2017